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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 2

January 2014

Volume 4, Issue 2

Pages i–ii, 113–229

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
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      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.796

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      Front Cover: A female hibiscus harlequin bug (Tectocoris diophthalmus: Scutelleridae), resting in the open on a Lagunaria leaf. Photo reproduced by permission of Scott A. Fabricant, Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, Australia.

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Is the hibiscus harlequin bug aposematic? The importance of testing multiple predators (pages 113–120)

      Scott A. Fabricant and Carolynn L. Smith

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.914

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      We tested the defenses of the aposematically colored hibiscus harlequin bug against multiple predatory taxa. We predicted based on the literature that arthropods would be repelled while defenses would not be effective against birds. Experiment showed the opposite pattern, wherein birds learned avoidance and predaceous arthropod were unaffected.

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      Host-plant genotypic diversity and community genetic interactions mediate aphid spatial distribution (pages 121–131)

      Sharon E. Zytynska, Laurent Frantz, Ben Hurst, Andrew Johnson, Richard F. Preziosi and Jennifer K. Rowntree

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.916

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      In this study we used a three species aphid-plant model system (aphids, host-plant and parasitic plant) to investigate the effect of genetic diversity on genetic interactions among the community members. We showed that aphids cluster more tightly in a genetically diverse host-plant system than in a genetic monoculture. Furthermore, within the host-plant diversity levels, aphid distribution was influenced by higher-order genetic interactions among all community members. Thus, a complex genetic environment influences the distribution of herbivores among host plants, suggesting that direct and indirect genotypic interactions among species can influence community structure and processes.

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      Lincoln estimates of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) abundance in North America (pages 132–143)

      Ray T. Alisauskas, Todd W. Arnold, James O. Leafloor, David L. Otis and James S. Sedinger

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.906

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      We estimated late summer population size of adult and juvenile male and female mallards in western, midcontinent, and eastern North America using Lincoln's method. The estimator is the quotient of total estimated harvest over estimated harvest probability. The denominator, in turn, is calculated as (ii) direct band recovery rate divided by the (iii) band reporting rate. Our goal was to compare estimates based on Lincoln's method with traditional estimates based on aerial surveys.

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      Genetic and morphometric divergence in threespine stickleback in the Chignik catchment, Alaska (pages 144–156)

      Annette Taugbøl, Claudia Junge, Thomas P. Quinn, Anders Herland and Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.918

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      In the present study, we have studied the genetic and morphometric distribution of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus acculeatus) sampled from one brackish and three freshwater sites with increasing distance from the sea (<40 km). We find that the threespine stickleback in the Chignik system clustered into two distinct genetic populations, one associated with the lagoon environment and the other with the freshwater environments, indicating a significant barrier to gene flow at the freshwater–lagoon interface.

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      Effects of reproductive condition, roost microclimate, and weather patterns on summer torpor use by a vespertilionid bat (pages 157–166)

      Joseph S. Johnson and Michael J. Lacki

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.913

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      A growing number of mammal species are recognized as heterothermic, capable of achieving large energetic savings through the use of torpor. To better understand the conditions in which small mammals use torpor during the summer, we studied Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) using temperature-sensitive radio telemetry. We found that different hypotheses explaining summer torpor each received strong support from our data in explaining different torpor variables, highlighting the multifaceted nature of torpor and the need to collect large datasets in an ecophysiological context.

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      Evolution of aging through reduced demographic stochasticity – an extension of the pleiotropy theory to finite populations (pages 167–173)

      Stefano Giaimo

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.889

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      In finite populations, there is selection against demographic stochasticity. An increase in early-life survival at the expense of later survival may reduce this form of stochasticity. A trade-off between juvenile and adult survival is highly efficient in reducing demographic stochasticity.

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      Expanding the understanding of local community assembly in adaptive radiations (pages 174–185)

      Katharina C. Wollenberg, Michael Veith and Stefan Lötters

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.908

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      We could empirically demonstrate general rules (environmental filtering of a functional trait) to strongly determine community assembly in a complete portion of an adaptive radiation (Caribbean Anolis lizards). The general importance for environmental filtering in Anolis community assembly is reflected by similar rules shaping similar local communities that evolved fourfold convergently.

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      Intraspecific variation among clones of a naïve rare grass affects competition with a nonnative, invasive forb (pages 186–199)

      David J. Gibson, Justin Dewey, Hélène Goossens and Misty M. Dodd

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.919

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      Intraspecific clonal variation within and among populations of a naïve and rare woodland grass affected and responded to competition from an aggressive non-native forb. This experimental greenhouse study shows that invasion success of a non-native may depend upon intraspecific variation among clones of resident species, but the effect of clones may vary from one year to the next.

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      Multiple paternity in wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus): effects on offspring genetic diversity and body mass (pages 200–209)

      Kerstin E. Thonhauser, Michaela Thoß, Kerstin Musolf, Teresa Klaus and Dustin J. Penn

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.920

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      We found that multiple paternity is common in wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus) in Europe occurring in 29% of litters. Multiple paternity increases litter genetic diversity indicating that females can gain genetic benefits from polyandry through increased genetic diversity. Dam and offspring heterozygosity is correlated, providing additional support for the idea that heterozygosity is heritable.

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      A comparison of abundance estimates from extended batch-marking and Jolly–Seber-type experiments (pages 210–218)

      Laura L. E. Cowen, Panagiotis Besbeas, Byron J. T. Morgan and Carl J. Schwarz

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.899

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      Boxplots of estimates obtained from an extended batch marking experiment and analogous Jolly-Seber-type study were obtained and compared. We found that batch-marking experiments performed fairly well in comparison to traditional capture-recapture designs in terms of bias and precision of the parameter estimates despite the loss in information.

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      Application of DNA barcoding for identification of freshwater carnivorous fish diets: Is number of prey items dependent on size class for Micropterus salmoides? (pages 219–229)

      Hyunbin Jo, Jeong-An Gim, Kwang-Seuk Jeong, Heui-Soo Kim and Gea-Jae Joo

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.921

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      The utilization of DNA barcoding is strongly recommended for determining specific predator–prey relationships in complex freshwater ecosystems.

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