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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 3

February 2014

Volume 4, Issue 3

Pages i–iii, 231–310

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
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      Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.797

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      Front Cover: Female brown bear (Ursus arctos). Photographer: Ilpo Kojola. Photo reproduced by permission of Sam M. J. G. Steyaert, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise (pages 231–242)

      Michael Julian Caley, Rebecca A. O'Leary, Rebecca Fisher, Samantha Low-Choy, Sandra Johnson and Kerrie Mengersen

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.926

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      Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information in a wide range of research applications, but how to define an individual's expertise is not well understood. We present a systems approach to describing expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. Our approach is adaptable to a range of situations where it is desirable to understand components of expertise.

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      Nitrate enrichment alters a Daphnia–microparasite interaction through multiple pathways (pages 243–250)

      Tad Dallas and John M. Drake

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.925

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      Nitrogen pollution in aquatic systems may alter the host–pathogen relationship. Assessing the impacts of environmental stressors on the host–pathogen relationship from multiple perspectives, we were able to determine the ecotoxicological effects of nitrate on the host–parasite relationship. We found that nitrate influenced Daphnia host populations, free-living pathogen survival, and pathogen dynamics within infected hosts.

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      On the evolution of omnivory in a community context (pages 251–265)

      Alex M. Chubaty, Brian O. Ma, Robert W. Stein, David R. Gillespie, Lee M. Henry, Conan Phelan, Eirikur Palsson, Franz W. Simon and Bernard D. Roitberg

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.923

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      We applied an evolutionary simulation model to examine how ecological conditions shape evolution of feeding phenotypes (e.g., omnivory).

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      Evidence for nonallopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert (pages 266–275)

      Federico Luebert, Pit Jacobs, Hartmut H. Hilger and Ludo A. H. Muller

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.929

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      AFLP analysis was conducted in five closely related sympatric species of the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. The species are genetically well differentiated in spite of low levels of gene flow. Only a few loci (<5%) are under positive selection, suggesting that nonallopatric speciation has taken place during the diversification of Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert.

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      An orb-weaver spider exploits an ant–acacia mutualism for enemy-free space (pages 276–283)

      John D. Styrsky

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.930

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      Exploiters of protection mutualisms are assumed to represent an important threat for the stability of those mutualisms, but empirical evidence for the commonness or relevance of exploiters is limited. Here, I describe results from a manipulative study showing that an orb-weaver spider, Eustala oblonga, exploits an ant–acacia mutualism for protection from predators. Although E. oblonga takes advantage of the protection services of ants, it likely exacts little to no cost and should not threaten the stability of the ant–acacia mutualism.

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      Climate change and the population collapse during the “Great Famine” in pre-industrial Europe (pages 284–291)

      Mauricio Lima

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.936

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      One of the worst population collapses of human societies occurred during the early fourteenth century in northern Europe; the “Great Famine” was the consequence of the dramatic effects of climate deterioration on human population growth. Here, the results suggest that a logistic model with temperature as a “lateral” perturbation effect is the key element for explaining the population collapse exhibited by the European population during the “Great Famine”.

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      Influence of air temperature on the first flowering date of Prunus yedoensis Matsum (pages 292–299)

      Peijian Shi, Zhenghong Chen, Qingpei Yang, Marvin K. Harris and Mei Xiao

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.442

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      A starting date and a base temperature were estimated for predicting the first flowering date (FFD) of Prunus yedoensis.Daily average accumulated degree days have an increasing trend from 1951 to 2012.Minimum annual temperature has a significant effect on the FFD of P. yedoensis.

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      Litter loss triggers estrus in a nonsocial seasonal breeder (pages 300–310)

      Sam M. J. G. Steyaert, Jon E. Swenson and Andreas Zedrosser

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.935

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      Sexually selected infanticide (SSI) is often presumed to be rare among seasonal breeders, because that would require a near immediate return to estrus after losing an entire litter. However, we found that the vast majority of female brown bears that lose an entire litter in fact do enter estrus during the ongoing mating season, mate, and give birth during the subsequent birthing season, and that SSI can shorten the interlitter intervals by up to 85%. Behavioral data suggest that females that experience litter loss enter estrus already 1–2 days after the loss.

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