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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 4

February 2014

Volume 4, Issue 4

Pages i–iii, 311–538

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Hypotheses
    1. You have full text access to this Open Access content
      Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.798

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      Front Cover: Skeleton of a Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) assembled from bones recovered at the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California. Original photograph taken by Jonathan Drury. Reproduced by permission of David A. Gold, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Hypotheses
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phylogeography of Liquidambar styraciflua (Altingiaceae) in Mesoamerica: survivors of a Neogene widespread temperate forest (or cloud forest) in North America? (pages 311–328)

      Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez and Juan Francisco Ornelas

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.938

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      We investigate sequence variation in two chloroplast DNA plastid regions between Measoamerican populations of the American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), a tree species with a disjunct distribution between northeastern Texas and Mexico. Our findings implicate the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt as a barrier driving genetic divergence of L. styraciflua, corresponding with environmental niche differences, during the Pliocene to Quaternary volcanic arc episode 3.6 Ma, and a Mesoamerican origin of populations in the USA.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Attempted DNA extraction from a Rancho La Brea Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi): prospects for ancient DNA from asphalt deposits (pages 329–336)

      David A. Gold, Jacqueline Robinson, Aisling B. Farrell, John M. Harris, Olaf Thalmann and David K. Jacobs

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.928

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      Fossil-bearing asphalt deposits are a potentially significant source of ancient DNA. Gold et al. tested a recently recovered Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) skeleton from the La Brea tar pits for DNA. Ultimately, none of the samples successfully amplified M. columbi DNA, suggesting that reagents typically used to remove asphalt from La Brea samples also inhibit DNA extraction and that environmental conditions in southern California might not have been ideal for the preservation of genetic material.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities (pages 337–354)

      David H. Williamson, Daniela M. Ceccarelli, Richard D. Evans, Geoffrey P. Jones and Garry R. Russ

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.934

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      Marine reserves are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and boosting fish populations. Here, we track the temporal dynamics of coral reef benthic and fish communities in reserves and fished areas following two major climatic disturbance events. Reserves provided significant benefits to fishery target species such as coral trout (Plectropomus spp.) by providing post-disturbance refuges of spawning fishes.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Morphological abnormalities in gall-forming aphids in a radiation-contaminated area near Fukushima Daiichi: selective impact of fallout? (pages 355–369)

      Shin-ichi Akimoto

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.949

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      To evaluate the impact of fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on organisms, the morphology and viability of gall-forming aphids were compared between the Fukushima population and control populations from noncontaminated areas. Of 164 Tetraneura sorini galls collected in spring 2012, 13.2% exhibited morphological abnormalities, including four conspicuously malformed individuals (2.4%). In contrast, in seven control areas, individuals with abnormal morphology accounted for 0.0–5.1%. Analysis of samples collected in spring 2013 indicated that the viability and healthiness of the aphids were significantly improved compared to those in the 2012 samples. A reduced level of radiation in 2013 and/or selection for radiation tolerance may have led to the improved viability and healthiness of the Fukushima population.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields (pages 370–380)

      Samantha Bailey, Fabrice Requier, Benoît Nusillard, Stuart P. M. Roberts, Simon G. Potts and Christophe Bouget

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.924

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      Our study provides one of the first well-documented examples in temperate ecosystems that forest edges, largely unrecognized source of pollinators to agriculture compared with other seminatural habitats, actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators that benefit crops in providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Biologic and ecological traits were used to explain observed species distribution patterns in oilseed rape field.

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      Photosynthetic traits of Sphagnum and feather moss species in undrained, drained and rewetted boreal spruce swamp forests (pages 381–396)

      Laura Kangas, Liisa Maanavilja, Tomáš Hájek, Eija Juurola, Rodney A. Chimner, Lauri Mehtätalo and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.939

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      We measured photosynthetic traits of Sphagnum and feather mosses in undrained, drained, and rewetted boreal spruce swamp forests. Drainage and rewetting affected moss carbon assimilation mainly through species turnover: ditch creation and rewetting produced niches for species with opportunistic strategies and high carbon assimilation.

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      Timing is everything: priority effects alter community invasibility after disturbance (pages 397–407)

      Celia C. Symons and Shelley E. Arnott

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.940

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      Dispersing species often have increased establishment success after environmental change; however, after an initial period of high invasibility, the resident community may exert priority effects over the dispersing species, reducing invasibility through time. Using an aquatic mesocosm experiment, we found that disturbed communities were more invasible when dispersers were added shortly after disturbance, but invasibility quickly declined through time as the resident community increased in abundance and richness. Additionally, invasibility decreased faster in the stressor that increased resource availability (i.e., nutrients) than the lethal stressor (i.e., salt). Our results suggest that the type and the relative timing of disturbance and dispersal will affect the establishment of new species into communities.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Disentangling community functional components in a litter-macrodetritivore model system reveals the predominance of the mass ratio hypothesis (pages 408–416)

      Karolína Bílá, Marco Moretti, Francesco de Bello, André T.C. Dias, Gianni B. Pezzatti, Arend Raoul Van Oosten and Matty P. Berg

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.941

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      A novel experimental framework to disentangle the unique and shared effects of CWM and FD in a leaf litter-macrodetritivore model system. We showed that CWM, but also the combination of CWM and FD, is a main factor controlling litter decomposition.

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      Inferences about population dynamics from count data using multistate models: a comparison to capture–recapture approaches (pages 417–426)

      Elise F. Zipkin, T. Scott Sillett, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Richard B. Chandler and J. Andrew Royle

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.942

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      We extend recently developed multistate, open population N-mixture models, which can additionally estimate demographic rates based on an organism's life history characteristics. In our extension, we develop an approach to account for the case where not all individuals can be assigned to a state during sampling. Using only state-specific count data, we show how our model can be used to estimate local population abundance, as well as density-dependent recruitment rates and state-specific survival.

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      Evolutionary quantitative genetics of behavioral responses to handling in a wild passerine (pages 427–440)

      Barbara Class, Edward Kluen and Jon E. Brommer

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.945

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      Blue tit males which fight aggressively during handling (a heritable trait) produce more young than males of low handling aggression. Based on extensive cross-fostering of offspring, we further demonstrate that (1) the higher fitness of aggressive males stems from their rearing capacity and (2) males mated with females of a similar aggression personality do better than males mated with a dissimilar partner.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Increasing pCO2 correlates with low concentrations of intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (pages 441–449)

      Esther M. Borell, Michael Steinke, Rael Horwitz and Maoz Fine

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.946

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      This study examines the potential functional role of the metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) as an antioxidant and how increases in pCO2 affect intracellular DMSP and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutases (SOD) in the anemone Anemonia viridis along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. Our results indicate that A. viridis was well acclimated to high pCO2 and show that DMSP in the anemones decreased significantly with increasing seawater pCO2 which coincided with low SOD activities; this provides an indirect evidence for an antioxidant functional role for DMSP in symbiotic anthozoans. Our data present the first example of how DMSP may operate as an antioxidant in symbiotic anthozoans in the field and indicate that a doubling in current seawater pCO2 by the end of the century could significantly reduce DMSP production in symbiotic anthozoans and thus coastal areas. This may have implications for local climatic feedbacks associated with atmospheric DMS emissions.

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      Resilience of Zostera muelleri seagrass to small-scale disturbances: the relative importance of asexual versus sexual recovery (pages 450–461)

      Peter I. Macreadie, Paul H. York and Craig D.H. Sherman

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.933

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      This study provides new insight into regeneration strategies employed by Zostera seagrass to recovery from small-scale disturbances.

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      The effects of locus number, genetic divergence, and genotyping error on the utility of dominant markers for hybrid identification (pages 462–473)

      Michael G. Sovic, Laura S. Kubatko and Paul A. Fuerst

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.833

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      Molecular markers have become important tools for investigating hybridization in natural populations. Because of cost, dominant markers continue to be used. Dominant genotype marker data were simulated to evaluate the effects of (1) the number of loci, (2) the level of differentiation between hybridizing populations, and (3) the level of genotyping error associated with assignment of individuals to various hybrid categories. Results indicate the relative importance of each of these variables on the assignment of individuals to various parental and hybrid categories, and can help guide experimental design when studying hybridization.

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      What shall I do now? State-dependent variations of life-history traits with aging in Wandering Albatrosses (pages 474–487)

      Deborah Pardo, Christophe Barbraud and Henri Weimerskirch

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.882

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      An individual's allocation decisions change with age and according to its potential costs of breeding the previous year. In this article, everything is decomposed in the extremely long-lived Wandering albatross. Our results suggest the existence of unsuspected breeding tactics with potentially different senescence rates.

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      Exposure to natural pathogens reveals costly aphid response to fungi but not bacteria (pages 488–493)

      Seth M. Barribeau, Benjamin J. Parker and Nicole M. Gerardo

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.892

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      The mother pea aphid in the middle is able to produce dozens of clonal daughters every day. The spots in her abdomen are the eyes of more developing embryos. Partly because of telescoping generations (the clonal daughters are born with developing embryos of their own) aphids have prodigious reproduction. We found that exposure to cues of fungal parasites resulted in producing fewer offspring, indicating that the immune response to fungi is costly. In contrast, exposure to bacterial cues did not result in reduced reproduction. These findings are consistent with genomic and immunological studies that found that pea aphids seem to have a diminished immune system, and in particular are missing much of the normal anti-bacterial immune response.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species (pages 494–504)

      Tom P. Moorhouse, Alison E. Poole, Laura C. Evans, David C. Bradley and David W. Macdonald

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.903

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      Our study demonstrates that non-eradication-oriented crayfish removal programmes may lead to increases in the number macroinvertebrates living in the benthos. This represents the first evidence that removing signal crayfish, at intensities feasible during control attempts or commercial crayfishing, may be beneficial for a range of sympatric aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Bet-hedging as a complex interaction among developmental instability, environmental heterogeneity, dispersal, and life-history strategy (pages 505–515)

      Samuel M. Scheiner

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.951

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      Bet-hedging in the form of random developmental variation is a possible evolutionary response to environmental heterogeneity. I used an individual-based, genetically explicit model to comprehensively examine the effects of both temporal and spatial heterogeneity alone and in combination, the effect of migration pattern (stepping stone vs. island), and life-history strategy. While some results confirmed previous models, other results were unexpected, and still others show very complex patterns that cannot be intuitively explained.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears (pages 516–527)

      Melissa A. McKinney, Todd Atwood, Rune Dietz, Christian Sonne, Sara J. Iverson and Elizabeth Peacock

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.956

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      Body condition is a key indicator of health, but most currently used condition indices (CIs) have not been thoroughly validated. Here, adipose samples from large datasets of biopsied and harvested polar bears were used to show that lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. Lipid content is thus a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and has potential to be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends.

  3. Hypotheses

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Hypotheses
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Testing the ecological consequences of evolutionary change using elements (pages 528–538)

      Punidan D. Jeyasingh, Rickey D. Cothran and Michael Tobler

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.950

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      We posit that attention to intraspecific variation in somatic stoichiometry promotes a synthesis of stoichiometric information in light of population genetics theory for a rigorous exploration of the ecological consequences of evolutionary change.

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