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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 6

March 2014

Volume 4, Issue 6

Pages i–iii, 673–875

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    1. You have full text access to this Open Access content
      Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.800

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      Front Cover: Greater flamingo feeding its chick on the breeding island in the Camargue, South of France. Illustration reproduced by permission of Arnaud Béchet, Tour du Valat, France.

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Life history mediates mate limitation and population viability in self-incompatible plant species (pages 673–687)

      Peter H. Thrall, Francisco Encinas-Viso, Susan E. Hoebee and Andrew G. Young

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.963

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      Empirical studies indicate that genetically controlled self-incompatibility systems may limit reproductive success when S allele diversity is limited such as in colonization events, or when populations are reduced by habitat loss. We use a simulation model to explore how the degree of mate limitation is influenced by life-history and mating system, and how these interact to determine long-term population viability. Results indicate that populations of SI species will often be smaller and less viable than self-compatible species, particularly for shorter-lived organisms or where potential fecundity is low. For a subset of life histories, increasing S allele diversity may improve demographic rescue.

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      Extraordinary MHC class II B diversity in a non-passerine, wild bird: the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (Aves: Rallidae) (pages 688–698)

      Miguel Alcaide, Joaquin Muñoz, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Ramón Soriguer and Jordi Figuerola

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.974

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      A next-generation sequencing approach has revealed more than 250 MHC class II alleles (exon 2, beta chain) and extensive gene copy variation in the Eurasian coot Fulica atra. This is the largest extent of MHC variation ever reported, to the best of our knowledge, in a wild population of a nonpasserine bird.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Habitat type and ambient temperature contribute to bill morphology (pages 699–705)

      David Luther and Russell Greenberg

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.911

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      We built a global model for the evolution of bill morphology based on measurements from museum skins and environmental variables from collection sites. Habitat type and ambient temperature are best explained bill morphology, while ambient temperature was also associated with sexual dimorphism in bill size for temperate but not tropical populations.

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      Predicting leaf traits of herbaceous species from their spectral characteristics (pages 706–719)

      Hans D. Roelofsen, Peter M. van Bodegom, Lammert Kooistra and Jan-Philip M. Witte

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.932

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      Leaf traits of herbaceous plant species were related to leaf spectral properties. The unexpected findings were attributed to plant strategies influencing leaf stoichiometry and decoupling the relation between the measured traits and the traits influencing spectral properties.

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      A bird distribution model for ring recovery data: where do the European robins go? (pages 720–731)

      Fränzi Korner-Nievergelt, Felix Liechti and Kasper Thorup

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.977

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      Ringing and recovery data of the European robin Erithacus rubecula indicate that a higher proportion of Scandinavian birds winter in northern Africa compared with the central European birds. Of the latter, a large proportion winter in Europe. This result was obtained by a specific ring recovery model that accounts for spatial heterogeneous ring recovery probability.

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      The effects of insects, nutrients, and plant invasion on community structure and function above- and belowground (pages 732–742)

      Phoebe Wright, Melissa A. Cregger, Lara Souza, Nathan J. Sanders and Aimée T. Classen

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.961

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      We found that propagule pressure from an invasive N-fixing plant can interact with soil nutrient status and insect abundance to shape plant and soil communities and potentially the feedbacks between the two. After 6 years of experimental treatments, our larger-scale measurements – plant biomass and soil N-cycling – responded directly to the main effects of our manipulations, while the more fine-scale community measurements tended to be shaped by interactive effects of our treatments.

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      Determining population structure and hybridization for two iris species (pages 743–755)

      Jennafer A. P. Hamlin and Michael L. Arnold

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.964

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      This work investigates the influences on population structure and evolutionary relationships within a species complex. We found that there are species-level differences in connectivity among populations of Louisiana irises. The I. brevicaulis phylogeny generated by SNAPP showed some structuring with Alabama and Louisiana genotypes forming one clade, which was sister to all other populations. The I. fulva species tree reflected population differentiation with high posterior support for the Louisiana population being sister to all other populations and the Arkansas sample being sister to the four other populations.

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      Equal nonbreeding period survival in adults and juveniles of a long-distant migrant bird (pages 756–765)

      Martin U. Grüebler, Fränzi Korner-Nievergelt and Beat Naef-Daenzer

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.984

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      In this study, we show that survival from leaving the breeding grounds to returning back does not differ between adult and juvenile birds in a well-known example of a long-distant migrating bird species. Instead, the main bottleneck occurs in the time just after fledging rather than during migration. This result revisits the common assumption that juvenile birds incur higher costs than adults during their first migration cycle.

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      Disturbance by large herbivores alters the relative importance of the ecological processes that influence the assembly pattern in heterogeneous meta-communities (pages 766–775)

      Haruka Ohashi and Yoshinobu Hoshino

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.987

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      The community assembly pattern caused by an overabundance of large herbivores was examined. The community assembly pattern changed more stochastic after the overabundance. Environmental processes diminished and spatial processes increased in importance. The turnover rate of community composition decreased in the habitat and topographic gradients, but not along altitude and spatial gradients.

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      Resource defense and monopolization in a marked population of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) (pages 776–793)

      François Rousseu, Yanick Charette and Marc Bélisle

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.972

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      Resource defense and monopolization can be influenced by many other factors besides the spatio-temporal distribution of resources. Here, using an extensive grid providing nectar feeders to a marked population of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris), we show that the defense and monopolization of feeders is influenced by habitat structure, nectar quality, the sex of individuals, and individual's space use.

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      Grassland invaders and their mycorrhizal symbionts: a study across climate and invasion gradients (pages 794–805)

      Rebecca A. Bunn, Ylva Lekberg, Christopher Gallagher, Søren Rosendahl and Philip W. Ramsey

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.917

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      In an observational field study, we looked for patterns consistent with mycorrhizal-mediated plant invasions such as (1) exotic plants harboring different AMF abundance and/or community composition than native plants, (2) native plants having altered AMF associations in the presence of exotics, and (3) shifts in AMF abundance and/or community composition correlating with plant invasiveness. We observed significant, but modest, differences in AMF colonization and communities between co-occurring exotic and native forbs and among exotic forbs across regions that differ in invasion pressure. While experimental manipulations are required to assess functional consequences, the observed patterns are not consistent with those expected from strong mycorrhizal-mediated invasions.

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      Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera (pages 806–816)

      Rosa A. Scherson, Abraham A. Albornoz, Andrés S. Moreira-Muñoz and Rafael Urbina-Casanova

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.960

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      Chile has one of the most endemic floras in the world, harboring a large number of endemic vascular plant genera. In this study, we used phylogeny-based indices to measure the evolutionary value of the endemic flora of Chile and its geographic distribution. We showed a geographic pattern where areas to the southwest of the country harbor more evolutionary richness than expected by their taxon richness or by chance, given a null model. These areas were important glacial refuges and should be looked at closely for future conservation purposes.

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      Applications of hidden hybrid Markov/semi-Markov models: from stopover duration to breeding success dynamics (pages 817–826)

      Rémi Choquet, Arnaud Béchet and Yann Guédon

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.962

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      We propose a new framework to model the time spent in a state. We show the potential of this framework by means of two ecological examples: 1) stop over duration and 2) breeding success dynamics.

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      Intraspecific competition and light effect on reproduction of Ligularia virgaurea, an invasive native alpine grassland clonal herb (pages 827–835)

      Tian-peng Xie, Ge-fei Zhang, Zhi-gang Zhao, Guo-zhen Du and Gui-yong He

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.975

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      Sexual reproduction did not depend on density or light and increases clonal growth with decreasing density and increasing light intensity. A threshold size is required for sexual reproduction and no evidence of a threshold size for clonal growth under different densities and light conditions. No evidence was found of trade-offs between clonal growth and sexual reproduction under different densities and light conditions at the genet level.

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      An ecological cost associated with protective symbionts of aphids (pages 836–840)

      Sarah Polin, Jean-Christophe Simon and Yannick Outreman

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.991

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      The ecological cost of symbiont-mediated resistance to parasitism in aphids was here investigated by analyzing aphid behavior in the presence of predatory ladybirds. We showed that aphids harboring protective symbionts expressed less defensive behaviors when facing ladybirds, thus suffering a higher predation than symbiont-free aphids.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interspecific diversity in root antioxidative enzyme activities reflect root turnover strategies and preferred habitats in wetland graminoids (pages 841–850)

      Çağdaş Kera Yücel, Melike Bor and Peter Ryser

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.992

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      Activity of five antioxidant enzymes in roots of four wetland species was assessed in course of the growing season and in a common garden experiment in June. The results clearly indicate that the pattern of the antioxidant enzyme activities is associated with the species' ecological strategy and habitat requirements. Field and garden results match each other very well.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adaptive latitudinal variation in Common Blackbird Turdus merula nest characteristics (pages 851–861)

      Mark C. Mainwaring, D. Charles Deeming, Chris I. Jones and Ian R. Hartley

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.952

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      The nest construction behavior of an open-cup-nesting bird, the Common Blackbird, varies adaptively along a latitudinal gradient. Nests built in cooler environments at higher latitudes have thicker nest walls and have greater insulatory properties than nests built at lower latitudes. Breeding birds appear to be able to gauge spatial variation in ambient spring temperatures and adjust their nest-building behavior accordingly.

  3. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The case for character displacement in plants (pages 862–875)

      Carolyn M. Beans

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.978

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      While the case for character displacement continues to build in the animal literature, we still have relatively few examples of character displacement in plants. This review explores whether character displacement is likely to occur in plant communities and offers some guidelines for rigorous experimental testing of this process. A deeper investigation of character displacement in plants is critical for a more complete understanding of the ecological and evolutionary forces that shape plant communities.

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