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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 7

April 2014

Volume 4, Issue 7

Pages i–iii, 877–1198

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
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      Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.801

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      Front Cover: The bright warning patterns of the sister species H. himera (top) and H. erato (bottom) are also used as mating cues. Original images by Riccardo Papa. Photo reproduced by permission of Richard M. Merrill, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Guidelines for a priori grouping of species in hierarchical community models (pages 877–888)

      Krishna Pacifici, Elise F. Zipkin, Jaime A. Collazo, Julissa I. Irizarry and Amielle DeWan

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.976

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      Here, we assess the sensitivity of community/group-level metrics, and individual-level species inferences given various classification schemes for grouping species using multispecies occurrence models. We found estimates of species richness to be most precise and to have the best predictive performance when all of the data were grouped at a single community level. We found different grouping schemes can provide an opportunity to identify unique assemblage responses that would not have been found if all of the species were analyzed together and suggest three guidelines: (1) classification schemes should be determined based on study objectives; (2) model selection should be used to quantitatively compare different classification approaches; and (3) sensitivity of results to different classification approaches should be assessed.

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      Does seasonality drive spatial patterns in demography? Variation in survival in African reed warblers Acrocephalus baeticatus across southern Africa does not reflect global patterns (pages 889–898)

      Dorine Y.M. Jansen, Fitsum Abadi, Doug Harebottle and Res Altwegg

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.958

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      Southern and tropical birds have higher adult survival (and smaller clutch sizes) than northern, temperate species - a global intraspecific pattern that the main life history theories found on the different environmental seasonality of these zones. We hypothesized that this pattern should also arise among populations within a species breeding in an azonal habitat. We analyzed ringing data (1998–2010) of the African reed warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus from sites in sixteen vegetation units across four biomes in southern Africa and found substantial variation in survival, but no detectable link to the environmental seasonality.

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      Human-aided admixture may fuel ecosystem transformation during biological invasions: theoretical and experimental evidence (pages 899–910)

      Jane Molofsky, Stephen R. Keller, Sébastien Lavergne, Matthew A. Kaproth and Maarten B. Eppinga

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.966

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      Human-aided dispersal may be reorganizing genetic variance in introduced organisms' functional traits, resulting in massive ecosystem transformation. First, admixture between divergent source populations during biological invasions increases the genetic variation in the introduced species' functional traits, leading to shifts in the genotypic variance of trait values or the creation of novel trait combinations. Following this, these new trait values or trait combinations can initiate new feedback mechanisms within the ecosystem, resulting in a transition from a native ecosystem to a novel invasive ecosystem.

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      Divergent warning patterns contribute to assortative mating between incipient Heliconius species (pages 911–917)

      Richard M. Merrill, Audrey Chia and Nicola J. Nadeau

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.996

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      Theoretical models suggest that traits under divergent ecological selection, which also contribute to assortative mating, will facilitate speciation with gene flow. Divergent color patterns contribute to mate recognition between the incipient species Heliconius himera and H. erato, a taxon pair for which assortative mating by color pattern has been demonstrated among wild individuals.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phytoplankton chlorophyte structure as related to ENSO events in a saline lowland river (Salado River, Buenos Aires, Argentina) (pages 918–932)

      Lía C. Solari, Néstor A. Gabellone, María C. Claps, María A. Casco, Karina P. Quaíni and Nancy C. Neschuk

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.983

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      We compared the physicochemical and biologic variables between two El Niño–La Niña–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) periods – El Niño (March 1997–January 1998) and La Niña (May 1998–May 1999) – to identify possible indicators of a relationship between climatic anomalies and chlorophyte performance. During the La Niña condition, species richness was greater owing to interconnected shallow lakes and drainage-channel inputs, while the Shannon diversity index was lower because of the high abundance values of Monoraphidium minutum.

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      Testing the consistency of wildlife data types before combining them: the case of camera traps and telemetry (pages 933–943)

      Viorel D. Popescu, Perry de Valpine and Rick A. Sweitzer

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.997

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      We developed methods for testing the consistency of simultaneously gathered telemetry and camera trap data using the fisher (Pekania pennanti) in Sierra Nevada as a test case. We found that camera detection probability can be predicted solely from telemetry utilization density (space-use frequency) and that males were more likely to be photo-captured due to larger home ranges and higher rates of movement. Although methods that combine data types (spatially explicit capture–recapture) make simple assumptions about home range shapes, it is reasonable to conclude that camera trap data do reflect space use in a manner consistent with telemetry data.

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      Filling the gap in functional trait databases: use of ecological hypotheses to replace missing data (pages 944–958)

      Simon Taugourdeau, Jean Villerd, Sylvain Plantureux, Olivier Huguenin-Elie and Bernard Amiaud

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.989

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      Filling the gap in functional trait databases: use of ecological hypotheses to replace missing data. Test of different imputation methods at species and community levels.

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      Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation (pages 959–967)

      Amanda J. Tracey and Lonnie W. Aarssen

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1001

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      Novel results show (contrary to traditional theory) that – under neighborhood crowding/competition within old-field vegetation – smaller species are more successful in terms of both number of resident species and number of resident plants. This can be accounted for, we suggest, because smaller species generally have a smaller minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN), and so they leave at least some descendants, despite the severe size suppression. In contrast, because larger species generally have a larger MIN, most resident plants fail to reach this under severe neighborhood crowding/competition, and so they die leaving no descendants.

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      Biologic interactions determining geographic range size: a one species response to phylogenetic community structure (pages 968–976)

      Leonel Herrera-Alsina and Rafael Villegas-Patraca

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.959

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      We defined a metric that depicts competition strength (via phylogenetic similarity) and tested whether the population response to this is different between related species which co-occur and have highly dissimilar range size.

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      Deep phylogeographic divergence of a migratory passerine in Sino-Himalayan and Siberian forests: the Red-flanked Bluetail (Tarsiger cyanurus) complex (pages 977–986)

      Site Luo, Yuchun Wu, Qing Chang, Yang Liu, Xiaojun Yang, Zhengwang Zhang, Min Zhang, Qiang Zhang and Fasheng Zou

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.967

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      A passerine species Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus provided a good system to manifest the evolutionary complexity in the important hotspot of avian biodiversity in Sino-Himalayans and Siberia. Based on their distinct morphology, ecology, and behaviors, its subspecies, T. c. cyanurus and T. c. rufilatus (and/or T. c. pallidior), have sometimes treated as two full species but without molecular evidence. In this study, we employed mitochondrial DNA and Z-linked DNA to address this debate. Our finding supports the proposed split of Tarsiger cyanurus that T. cyanurus and T. rufilatus should be treated as two full species. Whether “pallidior” is a subspecies or geographical form of T. rufilatus is still uncertain.

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      Modeling the role of the close-range effect and environmental variables in the occurrence and spread of Phragmites australis in four sites on the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Finland and the Archipelago Sea (pages 987–1005)

      Anas Altartouri, Leena Nurminen and Ari Jolma

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.986

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      We examined the prevalence and progression of Phragmites australis in four sites along the Southern Finnish coast in multiple time frames and analyzed patterns of neighborhood effect on the dynamics of reed beds. With variables easily available, our model can be used for the delineation of areas susceptible for Phragmites spread, allowing early management plans to be made. Our results provide estimates of habitat suitability and quantification of Phragmites expansion in a form suitable for dynamic modeling, which is useful for the prediction of future Phragmites distributions under different scenarios of land cover change and Phragmites spatial configuration.

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      A quantitative life history of endangered humpback chub that spawn in the Little Colorado River: variation in movement, growth, and survival (pages 1006–1018)

      Charles B. Yackulic, Michael D. Yard, Josh Korman and David R. Van Haverbeke

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.990

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      Individuals in the population of the endangered Gila cypha (humpback chub) located in the Little Colorado River and nearby portions of the Colorado River move in ways consistent with shared breeding ground partial migration and skip spawning. In addition, individuals exhibit very different growth and survival rates depending on whether they rear mostly in the regulated Colorado River or primarily in the less modified Little Colorado River.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Increased genetic divergence between two closely related fir species in areas of range overlap (pages 1019–1029)

      Jing Wang, Richard J. Abbott, Pär K. Ingvarsson and Jianquan Liu

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1007

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      Our analyses demonstrated that AFLP divergence was much greater between Abies chensiensis and Abies fargesii when comparisons were made between parapatric populations than between allopatric populations. We suggest that selection in parapatry may have largely contributed to this increased divergence.

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      Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments (pages 1030–1038)

      Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen, Marius Warg Næss, Torkild Tveraa, Knut Langeland and Per Fauchald

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1010

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      The theory of risk sensitivity provides a mechanistic understanding of how climate affects the evolution of life-history strategies. An increased understanding of how individuals respond to environmental unpredictability will be vital in predicting both the demography and population viability for reindeer and other long-lived organism in the face of future climate change.

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      Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance (pages 1039–1048)

      Hui-Mei Wang, Wen-Jie Wang, Huanfeng Chen, Zhonghua Zhang, Zijun Mao and Yuan-Gang Zu

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.947

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      Larch growth could most likely produce significant temporal changes of 10 of 19 parameters (SOM, P, C:N, C:P,C:K, K:P, N:K,bulk density, pH, and EC). Some of them showed contrary changes between surface and deep soils, while some others showed consistent changes on overall soil profile. Similar to top soil, deep soils are also sensible to forest growth and should be fully considered for soil studies.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes? (pages 1049–1060)

      Claudia L. Gray, Eleanor M. Slade, Darren J. Mann and Owen T. Lewis

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1003

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      The expansion of the oil palm industry is causing declines in tropical biodiversity. We surveyed dung beetle communities and ecosystem functions in oil palm landscapes, and found that riparian reserves (strips of forest along rivers) can help conserve biodiversity. However, we did not find a positive relationship between dung beetle diversity and dung removal function in riparian zones.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Soil moisture variations affect short-term plant-microbial competition for ammonium, glycine, and glutamate (pages 1061–1072)

      Katarina F. Månsson, Magnus O. Olsson, Ursula Falkengren-Grerup and Göran Bengtsson

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1004

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      The presence of the grass Festuca gigantea doubled the microbial NH+4 uptake in a dried and rewetted forest soil but had no effect in a constant moist soil. The plant took up less than one tenth of the microbial uptake, and glycine became an equally used N source as NH+4 in the dried and rewetted soil. Competition for N was demonstrated by a combination of removal of one of the potential competitors, the plant, and subsequent observations of the uptake of N in the organisms in soils that differ only in the physical presence and absence of the plant during a short assay.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A long-term field experiment of soil transplantation demonstrating the role of contemporary geographic separation in shaping soil microbial community structure (pages 1073–1087)

      Bo Sun, Feng Wang, Yuji Jiang, Yun Li, Zhixin Dong, Zhongpei Li and Xue-Xian Zhang

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1006

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      The relative importance of historical and contemporary factors in shaping microbial community structure was assessed in this work by a long-term large-scale soil transplantation experiment, whereby the same two soils (red soil and purple soil from Yingtan, China) were placed into two geographic locations of ~1000 km apart. Twenty years after the transplantation, the resulting soil microbial communities were subject to molecular analysis, including the high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. The results suggest that the historical effects persistent in the soil microbial communities can be largely erased by contemporary disturbance within a short period of 20 years, implicating weak effects of historical contingencies on the structure and composition of microbial communities in the soil.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Exposure of trees to drought-induced die-off is defined by a common climatic threshold across different vegetation types (pages 1088–1101)

      Patrick J. Mitchell, Anthony P. O'Grady, Keith R. Hayes and Elizabeth A. Pinkard

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1008

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      We characterize climatic drivers associated with documented tree die-off events for a range of vegetation types using a probabilistic framework. The observed die-off events occur when water deficits and maximum temperatures are high and exist outside 98% of the observed climatic range. We show a strong interactive effect of water and high temperature stress and provide a consistent approach for assessing changes in the exposure of ecosystems to extreme drought events.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Three divergent lineages within an Australian marsupial (Petrogale penicillata) suggest multiple major refugia for mesic taxa in southeast Australia (pages 1102–1116)

      Stephanie L. Hazlitt, Anne W. Goldizen, James A. Nicholls and Mark D. B. Eldridge

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1009

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      Mitochondrial DNA control region and microsatellite diversity in the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata) was examined to assess historic evolutionary and biogeographic processes in southeastern Australia. Our results confirmed three geographically discrete and genetically divergent mtDNA lineages whose divergence appears to date to the mid-Pleistocene. While the Northern and Central lineages were separated by a known biogeographic barrier (Hunter Valley), the boundary between the Central and Southern lineages suggest that the Great Dividing Range represented a more significant north–south barrier for mesic taxa in southeastern Australia than has been previously appreciated.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic diversity of a successful colonizer: isolated populations of Metrioptera roeselii regain variation at an unusually rapid rate (pages 1117–1126)

      Peter Kaňuch, Åsa Berggren and Anna Cassel-Lundhagen

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1005

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      The level of genetic variation in introduced populations of an insect species (Metrioptera roeselii) far beyond its natural distribution was significantly smaller comparing to levels found in their respective founder populations. However, a logarithmic model showed a significant correlation of both allelic richness and unbiased expected heterozygosity with age of the isolated populations. Considering the species' inferred colonization history and likely introduction pathways, we suggest that multiple introductions are the main mechanism behind the temporal pattern observed.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Crater lake cichlids individually specialize along the benthic–limnetic axis (pages 1127–1139)

      Henrik Kusche, Hans Recknagel, Kathryn Rebecca Elmer and Axel Meyer

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1015

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      A common pattern of adaptive diversification in freshwater fishes is the repeated evolution of open water (limnetic) species and of shore (benthic) species. Individual specialization can reflect earliest stages of evolutionary and ecological divergence. We here demonstrate individual specialization along the benthic–limnetic axis in a young adaptive radiation of crater lake cichlid fishes.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities associated with eggshells during incubation (pages 1140–1157)

      Stéphanie Grizard, Francisco Dini-Andreote, B. Irene Tieleman and Joana F. Salles

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1011

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      We aimed to describe the dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities on homing pigeon eggshell surfaces. We investigated these communities at early and late incubation stages.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Estimation of capture probabilities using generalized estimating equations and mixed effects approaches (pages 1158–1165)

      Md. Abdus Salam Akanda and Russell Alpizar-Jara

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1000

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      Heterogeneity in capture probabilities can be modelled as a function of individual covariates, but correlation structure among capture occasions should be taking into account.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Asymmetric reproductive barriers and mosaic reproductive isolation: insights from Misty lake–stream stickleback (pages 1166–1175)

      Katja Räsänen and Andrew P. Hendry

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1012

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      This study tests for selection against migrants in Misty lake–stream stickleback. Selection appears to be asymmetric, whereby performance of Inlet stream stickleback is poorer (than performance of Lake stickleback) in the lake, but performance of Lake stickleback is better (than that of Inlet stickleback) in the inlet. We discuss the results in light of mosaic reproductive isolation.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Stressful environments can indirectly select for increased longevity (pages 1176–1185)

      Fiona R. Savory, Timothy G. Benton, Varun Varma, Ian A. Hope and Steven M. Sait

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1013

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      We show experimentally and using stochastic population projection models that a long-lived, stress-resistant Caenorhabditis elegans mutant can have higher fitness than the wild-type genotype under stressful environmental conditions. Our results demonstrate that environmental stress can lead to altered allele frequencies over ecological timescales and indirectly drive the evolution of longevity.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Climate of origin affects tick (Ixodes ricinus) host-seeking behavior in response to temperature: implications for resilience to climate change? (pages 1186–1198)

      Lucy Gilbert, Jennifer Aungier and Joseph L. Tomkins

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1014

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      Climate warming might change the abundance and phenology of Ixodes ricinus ticks, the most important vector of disease-causing pathogens in Europe. We tested how ticks have adapted to climate by subjecting ticks from a cline of climates to experimentally increasing temperature. Ticks from cooler climates were more active at cool temperatures than those from warmer climates, and climate parameters were strongly associated with tick behavior, indicating adaptation and potential for resilience to climate change. We estimate that ticks could expand their activity season by 1–2 months with climate change.

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