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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 8

April 2014

Volume 4, Issue 8

Pages i–iii, 1199–1503

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
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      Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.802

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      Front Cover: The Kalahari Christmas tree (Dichrostachys cinerea) an important woody encroacher in many African savannas. Photo reproduced by permission of Wilma J. Blaser, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Zürich, Switzerland

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs (pages 1199–1208)

      Susan Hodgson, Catherine de Cates, Joshua Hodgson, Neil J. Morley, Brian C. Sutton and Alan C. Gange

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.953

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      Endophyte fungi in forbs are transmitted within plant generations on and inside pollen grains. They are transmitted between plant generations via the seeds.

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      Modelling the distribution of Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos tea): implications of climate change for livelihoods dependent on both cultivation and harvesting from the wild (pages 1209–1221)

      Daleen Lötter and David le Maitre

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.985

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      Bioclimatic modelling was employed to model A. linearis' (Rooibos tea) distribution and develop possible scenarios of range/suitability shift under future climate conditions. The species exhibited substantial range contraction with some range shifts southeastwards and upslope. As an invaluable wild resource for local people and commercially cultivated plant, these findings are critical to protect wild rooibos populations and sustain commercial production.

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      Color expression in experimentally regrown feathers of an overwintering migratory bird: implications for signaling and seasonal interactions (pages 1222–1232)

      Christopher M. Tonra, Kristen L. D. Marini, Peter P. Marra, Ryan R. Germain, Rebecca L. Holberton and Matthew W. Reudink

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.994

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      We examined the production of colorful feathers known to play a role in sexual selection in a migratory bird while on its tropical wintering grounds. Regardless of habitat and physiological condition, adult males experienced a reduction in the color quality in replaced feathers. Our findings illustrate how visual signals can be limited by the ability of individuals to maintain their quality throughout the year, and for migratory animals, across multiple locations.

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      Flow-mediated plasticity in the expression of stickleback nesting glue genes (pages 1233–1242)

      Paul J. Seear, Megan L. Head, Ceinwen A. Tilley, Ezio Rosato and Iain Barber

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1016

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      Nest construction is an essential component of the reproductive behavior of many species, and to maximize reproductive success, nests must be suited to local environmental conditions. Here, we examine the effect of experimentally manipulated water flow rates on the expression of genes that encode a protein glue (“spiggin”) that plays a critically important role in nest construction in three-spined stickleback fish. We found that the flow regime experienced by nest-building male fish not only dramatically alters the overall level of spiggin gene expression, but also that the relative expression of different spiggin genes – which encode different components of the glue – is differentially affected.

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      Active colonization dynamics and diversity patterns are influenced by dendritic network connectivity and species interactions (pages 1243–1254)

      Mathew Seymour and Florian Altermatt

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1020

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      Network connectivity influences colonization dynamics, species invasions, and biodiversity patterns. Recent theoretical work suggests that dendritic networks, such as those found in rivers, alter expectations regarding colonization and dispersal dynamics compared with other network types. Here, we tested the effect of network connectivity and species interactions on colonization dynamics using continuous linear and dendritic (i.e., river-like) microcosm networks, which allow for active dispersal. Our experimental findings confirm previous theoretical work and show that network connectivity, species-specific dispersal ability, and species interactions greatly influence the dispersal and colonization of dendritic networks.

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      High rates of growth recorded for hawksbill sea turtles in Anegada, British Virgin Islands (pages 1255–1266)

      Lucy A. Hawkes, Andrew McGowan, Annette C. Broderick, Shannon Gore, Damon Wheatley, Jim White, Matthew J. Witt and Brendan J. Godley

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1018

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      In the present study, we estimated growth rate of juvenile hawksbill turtles around Anegada, British Virgin Islands, using capture–mark–recapture of 59 turtles over periods of up to 649 days. Across all sizes, turtles grew at an average rate of 9.3 cm per year (range 2.3–20.3 cm year−1), and gained mass at an average of 3.9 kg year−1 (range 850 g–16.1 kg year−1). These are among the fastest rates of growth reported for this species, with seven turtles growing at a rate that would increase their body size by more than half per year (51–69% increase in body length).

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      A statistical simulation model for field testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants (pages 1267–1283)

      Paul W. Goedhart, Hilko van der Voet, Ferdinando Baldacchino and Salvatore Arpaia

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1019

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      This paper describes a general framework for simulating data typically encountered in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. The framework comprises most aspects of comparative field experiments such as count data, excess-zeros, blocking, multiple trials, genotype by environment interaction and repeated measures. It enables a prospective power analysis.

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      Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009) (pages 1284–1294)

      Roberto Pizzolotto, Mauro Gobbi and Pietro Brandmayr

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.927

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      This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites, the Paneveggio Regional Park.

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      Which host-dependent insects are most prone to coextinction under changed climates? (pages 1295–1312)

      Melinda L. Moir, Lesley Hughes, Peter A. Vesk and Mei Chen Leng

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1021

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      The Bluff Knoll leaf beetle (Cudnellia sp. nov.; Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera, inset) from the biodiversity hotspot of southwest Australia is potentially threatened with coextinction with climate change. It occurs on threatened Ericaceae plants (Leucopogon, Sphenotoma, and Andersonia, flowering in picture) and is restricted to the two highest summits in the region.

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      Defining conservation units in a stocking-induced genetic melting pot: unraveling native and multiple exotic genetic imprints of recent and historical secondary contact in Adriatic grayling (pages 1313–1327)

      Andreas Meraner, Luca Cornetti and Andrea Gandolfi

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.931

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      The conservation of Thymallus thymallus is particularly complex in its southern distribution area, where the Adriatic grayling evolutionary lineage is endangered by a long history of human pressure. Through mtDNA sequencing and microsatellite genotyping of grayling from 30 Adriatic and European sites, we describe microgeographic population structure and demographic history of the Adriatic populations. We observed significant population substructuring within the Adriatic grayling Evolutionary Significant Unit, and we therefore propose the definition of different conservation units to be preserved according to appropriate management measures.

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      Do females invest more into eggs when males sing more attractively? Postmating sexual selection strategies in a monogamous reed passerine (pages 1328–1339)

      Ján Krištofík, Alžbeta Darolová, Juraj Majtan, Monika Okuliarová, Michal Zeman and Herbert Hoi

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1034

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      Males mate faster when they sing more complex. Female egg investment is related to male song performance in several aspects.

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      Two sexes, one body: intra- and intersex covariation of gamete phenotypes in simultaneous hermaphrodites (pages 1340–1346)

      Keyne Monro and Dustin J. Marshall

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1035

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      We present novel empirical evidence of phenotypic integration within and across sexual functions (sperm and eggs) in two broadcast-spawning hermaphrodites, implying that that selection may be unable to target these functions independently because direct selection on traits of one sex is translated into correlated effects on traits of the other.

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      The genetics of phenotypic plasticity. XIII. Interactions with developmental instability (pages 1347–1360)

      Samuel M. Scheiner

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1039

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      In a heterogeneous environment, natural selection on a trait can lead to a variety of outcomes, including phenotypic plasticity and bet-hedging through developmental instability. When plasticity and instability were determined by different loci, the only effect on the evolution of plasticity was the elimination of plasticity as a bet-hedging strategy, while instability was generally disfavored. When plasticity and instability were determined by the same loci, instability acted as a strong limitation on the evolution of plasticity.

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      Evaluating monitoring methods to guide adaptive management of a threatened amphibian (Litoria aurea) (pages 1361–1368)

      Deborah S. Bower, Evan J. Pickett, Michelle P. Stockwell, Carla J. Pollard, James I. Garnham, Madeleine R. Sanders, John Clulow and Michael J. Mahony

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.980

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      We monitored a population of L. aurea at Sydney Olympic Park over 5 years using mark–recapture, capture encounter, noncapture encounter, auditory, tadpole trapping, and dip-net surveys. The methods differed in the cost, time, and ability to detect changes in the population. Only capture encounter surveys were able to detect a decline in the occupancy, relative abundance, and recruitment of frogs during the surveys.

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      Delimiting cryptic pathogen species causing apple Valsa canker with multilocus data (pages 1369–1380)

      Xuli Wang, Rui Zang, Zhiyuan Yin, Zhensheng Kang and Lili Huang

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1030

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      We used sequence data from three nuclear loci (ITS, Btu, EF1α) to identify cryptic species within the morphological species Valsa mali causing canker on apple. Our results proved that two varieties of the former morphological species V. mali represented two distinct species, V. mali and V. pyri.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genomic heritability estimation for the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate in wild rainbow and steelhead trout populations (pages 1381–1388)

      Guo Hu, Chunkao Wang and Yang Da

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1038

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      Applying genomic heritability estimation to this dataset, we found that smoltification in the UYR population was completely determined by genetics, with 95.5% additive heritability and 4.5% dominance heritability, whereas smoltification in the UMC population had substantial dominance effects, with 0% additive heritability and 39.3% dominance heritability. Genomic-predicted additive effects completely separated migratory and nonmigratory fish in the UYR population, whereas genomic-predicted dominance effects achieved such complete separation in the UMC population. The UMC population had higher genomic additive and dominance correlations than the UYR population, and fish between these two populations had least genomic correlations. These results suggested blocking the free access to the ocean may have reduced genetic variation associated with the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate, increased genomic similarity or reduced genetic diversity within the Upper Mann Creek population.

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      Use of posterior predictive checks as an inferential tool for investigating individual heterogeneity in animal population vital rates (pages 1389–1397)

      Thierry Chambert, Jay J. Rotella and Megan D. Higgs

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.993

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      We show how posterior predictive checks can be used to strengthen inferences in ecological studies. We demonstrate the application of this method on analyses dealing with the question of individual reproductive heterogeneity in a population of Antarctic pinnipeds.

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      High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales (pages 1398–1412)

      Juan P. Torres-Florez, Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete, Howard Rosenbaum and Christian C. Figueroa

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.998

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      It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations. However, this would not be the case of long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects. We find no relationship between genetic diversity and population size in probably one of the most endangered species on seas, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus).

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      110 Years of change in urban tree stocks and associated carbon storage (pages 1413–1422)

      Daniel F. Díaz-Porras, Kevin J. Gaston and Karl L. Evans

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1017

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      Using repeat photography, we demonstrate that in Sheffield, UK, we show that between 1900 to 2010, urban tree stocks initially declined and then increased significantly, resulting in a doubling of aboveground carbon storage. Rates of temporal change were not uniform across the spatial urbanization gradient, which has implications for the use of space-for-time swops in urban environments. Increase in small trees was greatest in areas with little green space, sites which had the smallest increase in large trees. Investment in urban tree planting is required to maintain the positive direction of change, but their long-term legacy requires changes in management to increase the proportion of such trees that mature.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Woody encroachment reduces nutrient limitation and promotes soil carbon sequestration (pages 1423–1438)

      Wilma J. Blaser, Griffin K. Shanungu, Peter J. Edwards and Harry Olde Venterink

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1024

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      We studied the effects of woody encroachment on soil N, P, and C pools, and availabilities of N and P to Dichrostachys cinerea shrubs and to the understory vegetation. Both N and P pools in the soil increased along gradients of shrub age and cover, suggesting that N fixation by D. cinerea did not reduce the P supply. This in turn suggests that continued growth and carbon sequestration in this mesic savanna ecosystems are unlikely to be constrained by nutrient limitation and could represent a C sink for several decades.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data (pages 1439–1450)

      Frances E. Buderman, Duane R. Diefenbach, Mary Jo Casalena, Christopher S. Rosenberry and Bret D. Wallingford

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1025

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      The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery model. The joint known-fate tag-recovery model eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate.

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      Genomic replacement of native Cobitis lutheri with introduced C. tetralineata through a hybrid swarm following the artificial connection of river systems (pages 1451–1465)

      Ye-Seul Kwan, Myeong-Hun Ko and Yong-Jin Won

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1027

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      The construction of water canals about 80 years ago has unidirectionally introduced C. tetralineata into the native habitat of C. lutheri, and then these species have hybridized in the main stream section of the Dongjin River. All the results suggest that the constant introductions of C. tetralineata from the Seomjin River through canals appear to have resulted in the rapid genetic erosion of the native C. lutheri through a creation of hybrid swarm in the Dongjin River.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The relationship between DRD4 polymorphisms and phenotypic correlations of behaviors in the collared flycatcher (pages 1466–1479)

      László Z. Garamszegi, Jakob C. Mueller, Gábor Markó, Eszter Szász, Sándor Zsebők, Gábor Herczeg, Marcel Eens and János Török

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1041

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      Understanding the genetic architecture of behaviors is crucial for making evolutionary implications especially in wild animals. Here, in a Hungarian population of the collared flycatcher, we investigate how males with distinct DRD4 genotypes differ in the consistent elements of their courtship behavior. We found that “AC” heterozygote individuals at the SNP764 take lower risk than the most common “AA” homozygotes (the “CC” homozygotes were not represented in this subsample of males).

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      One step forward: contrasting the effects of Toe clipping and PIT tagging on frog survival and recapture probability (pages 1480–1490)

      Murilo Guimarães, Décio T. Corrêa, Sérgio S. Filho, Thiago A. L. Oliveira, Paul F. Doherty Jr and Ricardo J. Sawaya

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1047

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      We tested the effects of two marking techniques on anurans to estimate survival probabilites. Survival slightly differed between toe pad-clipped and PIT-tagged frogs but did not vary between sexes. Recapture probability was also variable. We discuss potential effects of each technique on studies of frogs and its implications for individual survival.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Morphological and life-history responses of anurans to predation by an invasive crayfish: an integrative approach (pages 1491–1503)

      Ana L. Nunes, Germán Orizaola, Anssi Laurila and Rui Rebelo

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.979

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      This study focuses on predator-induced plasticity in morphology and life-history traits of an anuran community invaded by an exotic crayfish predator around 25 years ago. We found among-species variation in the ability to respond to novel predators, and our results show that some of the prey species within the invaded community do show adaptive defenses against a recently established predator.

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