Supported by Brock Doctoral Scholarship, University of Guelph and a graduate student grant, Rannis, Iceland, to B. K. K.
Fine-scale parallel patterns in diversity of small benthic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in relation to the ecology of lava/groundwater habitats
Article first published online: 29 APR 2012
© 2011 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
Ecology and Evolution
Volume 2, Issue 6, pages 1099–1112, June 2012
How to Cite
Kristjánsson, B. K., Skúlason, S., Snorrason, S. S. and Noakes, D. L.G. (2012), Fine-scale parallel patterns in diversity of small benthic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in relation to the ecology of lava/groundwater habitats. Ecology and Evolution, 2: 1099–1112. doi: 10.1002/ece3.235
- Issue published online: 12 JUN 2012
- Article first published online: 29 APR 2012
- Received: 12 January 2012; Revised: 08 February 2012; Accepted: 13 February 2012
- 2002. The functional significance of inherited differences in feeding morphology in a sympatric polymorphic population of Arctic charr. Evol. Ecol. 16:15–25. , and .
- 2004. Incipient speciation driven by phenotypic plasticity? Evidence from sympatric populations of Arctic charr. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 81:611–618. , and .
- 2008. Convergence and parallelism reconsidered: what have we learned about the genetics of adaptation? Trends. Ecol. Evol. 23:26–32. , and .
- Bell, M. A., and S. A. Foster, eds. 1994. The evolutionary biology of the threespine stickleback. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford , U.K .
- 2006. Evo-devo and constraints on selection. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21:362–368.
- 2001. Holarctic phylogeography of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Evolution 55:573–586. , , , , and .
- 2006. Springs of the Alps – sensitive ecosystems to environmental change: from biodiversity assessments to long-term studies. Hydrobiologia 562:59–96. , , and .
- 2007. Evolution on ecological time scale. Funct. Ecol. 21:387–393. , , , and .
- 2006. Experimental evolution of phenotypic plasticity: how predictive are cross-environment genetic correlations? Am. Nat. 168:323–335. , , and .
- 2008. Dvergbleikja í grennd við Jökulsáá Fjöllum. Náttúrufræðingurinn 76:109–114. , and .
- 2007. Eco-evolutionary dynamics of communities and ecosystems. Funct. Ecol. 21:465–477. , , and .
- 1979. Vistfræðileg flokkun íslenskra vatna. Týli 9:1–10.
- 2011. Influences of spring type, physcochemical factors, and longitudinal changes in freshwater spring invertebrate ecology. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Aquaculture and Fish Biology, Hólar University College , Iceland , 61 pp.
- 2005. Rapid evolution and the convergence of ecological and evolutionary time. Ecol. Lett. 8:1114–1127. , , , , and .
- 1932. The causes of evolution. Harper and Brothers, London , UK .
- 2008. Detecting fisheries-induced life-history evolution: an overview of the reaction-norm approach. Bull. Mar. Sci. 83:69–93. , and .
- 1999. The pace of modern life: measuring rates of contemporary microevolution. Evolution 53:1637–1653. , and .
- 2000. Rapid evolution of a geographic cline in size in an introduced fly. Science 287:308–309. , , , , and .
- 1961. Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven , CT .
- Johnson, L., and B. Burns, eds. 1984. Biology of Arctic charr. Proceedings of the Symposium. Univ. of Manitoba Press, Manitoba , Canada .
- 2012. Universal scaling rules predict evolutionary patterns of myogenesis in species with indeterminate growth. Proc. R. Soc. B 1–7. , , , , , and .
- 1992. Are parallel morphologies of cave organisms the result of similar selection pressure? Evolution 46:353–365. , , and .
- 2011. Evolution of adaptive diversity and genetic connectivity in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in Iceland. Heredity 106:472–487. , , , , , and .
- 2010. The charr problem revisited: exceptional phenotypic plasticity promotes ecological speciation in postglacial lakes. Freshwater Rev. 3:49–74
- 2002. Takvatn through 20 years: long-term effects of an experimental mass removal of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, from a subarctic lake. Environ. Biol. Fish. 64: 39–47. , , , , , and .
- 2008. Fine scale phenotypic diversity of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in relation to ecological characters. Ph.D. thesis, Zoology Department, Univ. of Guelph , Canada .
- 2004. Crymostygidae, a new family of subterranean freshwater gammaridean amphipods (Crustacea) recorded from subarctic Europe. J. Nat. Hist. 38:1881–1894. , and .
- 2007. Subglacial refugia in Iceland enabled groundwater amphipods to survive glaciations. Am. Nat. 170:292–296. , and .
- 2002. Morphological segregation of Icelandic threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 76:247–257. , , and .
- 2011. Relationship between lake ecology and morphological characters in Icelandic Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 103:761–771. , , , , , and .
- 1964. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: a numerical method. Psychometrika 29:115–129.
- 1998. Contingency and determinism in replicated adaptive radiations of island lizards. Science 279:2115–2118. , , , , and .
- 2002. Ecology, behaviour and conservation of the charrs, genus Salvelinus: relevance for their management and conservation. Springer, Dordrecht . , , , , , and .
- 2005. Evolutionary ecology: the Trinidadian guppy. Oxford series in ecology & evolution. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford , U.K.
- 2000. Biodiversity of macroinvertebrates on rocky substrate in the surf zone of Icelandic lakes. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 27:1–7 , , , , and .
- 1994. Speciation and the evolution of reproductive isolation in the stickleback (Gasterosteus) of south-western British Columbia. Pp. 399–437 in M. A. Bell and S. A. Foster, eds. The evolutionary biology of the threespine stickleback. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford .
- 1970. Freshwater fishes of northwestern Canada and Alaska, vol. 173. Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull., Ottawa , Canada . , and .
- 2006. PC-ORD. Multivariate analysis of ecological data. Version 5.10 MjM Software, Gleneden Beach , Oregon , U.S.A. , and .
- 1998. Body size, natural selection, and speciation in sticklebacks. Evolution 52:209–218. , and .
- 2008. Pattern and process, behavior, ecology and evolution of charr. Environ. Biol. Fish. 83:7–15
- 1982. Life histories of tilapias: an evolutionary perspective. Pp. 61–82 in R. S. V. Pullin and R. H. Lowe-McConnell, eds. The biology and culture of Tilapias. ICLARM, Manila . , and .
- 2011. Phenotypic plasticity, heterochrony and ontogenetic repatterning during juvenile development of divergetn Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). J. Evol. Biol. 24:1640–1652. , , , and .
- 1997. Multiple modes of speciation involved in the parallel evolution of sympatric morphotypes of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis, Salmonidae). Evolution 51:196–205. , , and .
- 2005. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: where are we going now? Trends Ecol. Evol. 20:481–486.
- 2009. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks in community and ecosystem ecology: interactions between the ecological theatre and the evolutionary play. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B. 364:1629–1640. , and .
- 2003. Differential responses to Na+/K+ and Ca2+/Mg2+ in two edaphic races of the Lasthenia californica (Asteraceae) complex: a case for parallel evolution of physiological traits. New Phytol. 157:93–103. , , , , and .
- 2006. Replicated ecological landscapes and the evolution of morphological diversity among Gasterosteus populations from an archipelago on the west coast of Canada. Can. J. Zool. 84:643–654. , and .
- 1996. Life history evolution in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). 6. Differential mortality as a mechanism for natural selection. Evolution 50:1651–1660. , , , and .
- 2000. Natural selection and the evolution of adaptive genetic variation in northern freshwater fishes. Pp. 65–94 in T. A. Mosseau, B. Sinervo, and J. A. Endler, eds. Adaptive genetic variation in the wild. Univ. Press, New York, Oxford . , and .
- 1994. Character release and displacement in fishes: a neglected literature. Am. Nat. 144:596–627. , and .
- 1992. The Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus in thingvallavatn. Pp. 305–351 in P. M. Jónasson, ed. Thingvallavatn, Oikos . , , , , , , , , , and .
- 2000. The ecology of adaptive radiation. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford , U.K .
- 2004. Parallel evolution and inheritance of quantitative traits. Am. Nat. 163:809–822. , , , and .
- 1976. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull., Ottawa , Canada , pp. 184. , and .
- 2005. Parallel evolution, not always so parallel: comparison of small benthic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, from Grímsnes and Thingvallavatn, Iceland. Environ. Biol. Fish. 74:239–244. , and .
- 1995. Resource polymorphism in vertebrates. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10:366–370. , and .
- 1989a. Segregation in spawning and early life history among polymorphic Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, in Thingvallavatn, Iceland. J. Fish. Biol. 35:225–232. , , , , and .
- 1989b. Ontogeny of trophic morphology of four sympatric morphs of arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus in Thingvallavatn, Iceland. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 38:281–301. , , and .
- 1992. Variability in Icelandic arctic charr. Icel. Agri. Sci. 6:143–153. , , , , and .
- 1999. Sympatric morphs, population and speciation in freshwater fish with emphasis on arctic charr. In A. Magurran and , eds. Evolution of biological diversity: from population to species. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford , U.K. , , and .
- 1996. Evolutionary significance of resource polymorphism in fishes, amphibians, and birds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 27:111–133. , and .
- 2004. Adaptive speciation in northern freshwater fish – patterns and processes. In U. Diekmann, H. Metz, M. Doebeli, and D. Tautz, eds. Adaptive speciation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge , U.K. , and .
- 1998. Dvergbleikja á mótum ferskvatns og sjávar. Náttúrufræðingurinn 67:189–199. , , , and .
- 1993. Field techniques for the classification of near-bed flow regimes. Fresh Biol. 29:377–383.