G. M. W. was supported by the FP7 (Marie Curie Fellowship; project number 275252).
Introduction pathway and climate trump ecology and life history as predictors of establishment success in alien frogs and toads
Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012
© 2011 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
Ecology and Evolution
Volume 2, Issue 7, pages 1437–1445, July 2012
How to Cite
Rago, A., While, G. M. and Uller, T. (2012), Introduction pathway and climate trump ecology and life history as predictors of establishment success in alien frogs and toads. Ecology and Evolution, 2: 1437–1445. doi: 10.1002/ece3.261
- Issue published online: 6 JUL 2012
- Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012
- Received: 2 March 2012; Revised: 19 March 2012; Accepted: 26 March 2012
- life history;
- range expansion
A major goal for ecology and evolution is to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape patterns of biological diversity. Here, we show that variation in establishment success of nonnative frogs and toads is primarily explained by variation in introduction pathways and climatic similarity between the native range and introduction locality, with minor contributions from phylogeny, species ecology, and life history. This finding contrasts with recent evidence that particular species characteristics promote evolutionary range expansion and reduce the probability of extinction in native populations of amphibians, emphasizing how different mechanisms may shape species distributions on different temporal and spatial scales. We suggest that contemporary changes in the distribution of amphibians will be primarily determined by human-mediated extinctions and movement of species within climatic envelopes, and less by species-typical traits.