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Despite current interest in population genetics, a concrete definition of a “population” remains elusive. Multiple ecologically and evolutionarily based definitions of population are in current use, which focus, respectively, on demographic and genetic interactions. Accurate population delimitation is crucial for not only evolutionary and ecological population biology, but also for conservation of threatened populations. Along the Pacific Coast of North America, two contrasting patterns of geographic variation in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) converge within the state of Oregon. Populations of these mice diverge morphologically across an east–west axis, and they diverge in mitochondrial DNA haplotypes across a north–south axis. In this study, we investigate these geographically contrasting patterns of differentiation in the context of ecological and evolutionary definitions (paradigms) of populations. We investigate these patterns using a new and geographically expansive sample that integrates data on morphology, mitochondrial DNA, and nuclear DNA. We found no evidence of nuclear genetic differentiation between the morphologically and mitochondrially distinct populations, thus indicating the occurrence of gene flow across Oregon. Under the evolutionary paradigm, Oregon populations can be considered a single population, whereas morphological and mitochondrial differentiations do not indicate distinct populations. In contrast, under the ecological paradigm morphological differentiation indicates distinct populations based on the low likelihood of demographic interactions between geographically distant individuals. The two sympatric but mitochondrially distinct haplogroups form a single population under the ecological paradigm. Hence, we find that the difference between evolutionary and ecological paradigms is the time-scale of interest, and we believe that the more chronologically inclusive evolutionary paradigm may be preferable except in cases where only a single generation is of interest.