This work was supported by the National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada to B.W.R.
Diversifying and correlational selection on behavior toward conspecific and heterospecific competitors in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans)
Article first published online: 25 JUL 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
Ecology and Evolution
Volume 2, Issue 9, pages 2141–2154, September 2012
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2012; 2(9): 2141–2154
- Issue published online: 11 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 25 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 JUN 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 20 JUN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 13 MAR 2012
- National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada
- 2007. Sticklebacks from streams are more bold than sticklebacks from ponds. Behav. Process. 76:215–217. , and .
- 1998. Aggressive interactions and risk of fish predation for larval damselflies. J. Insect Behav. 12:213–223. , , and .
- 1986. Two-way selection for aggression in juvenile, female and male sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.), with some notes on hormonal factors. Behaviour 93:69–81.
- 1994. Evolution of aggression behavior in the threespine stickleback. Pp. 345–380 in M. A. Bell and S. A. Foster, eds. The evolutionary biology of the threespine stickleback. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK.
- 2005. Behavioural differences between individuals and two populations of stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). J. Evol. Biol. 18:464–473.
- 2007. Exposure to predation generates personality in threespined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Ecol. Lett. 10:828–834. , and .
- 2004. Development of behavioural differences between individuals and populations of sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Anim. Behav. 68:1339–1348. , and .
- 2009. Indirect genetic effects influence antipredator behavior in guppies: estimates of the coefficient of interaction psi and the inheritance of reciprocity. Evolution 63:1796–1806. , and .
- 2007. Nonadditive effects of group membership can lead to additive group phenotypes for anti-predaotr behaviour of guppies, Poecilia reticulata. J. Evol. Biol. 20:1375–1384. , , and .
- 2000. JWatcher 0.9. Animal Behaviour Laboratory, Macquarie University, Sydney. , , and .
- 2003. The ecology of individuals: incidence and implications of individual specialization. Am. Nat. 161:1–28. , , , , , , et al.
- 2005. In situ examination of boldness-shyness traits in the tropical poeciliid, Brachyraphis episcopi. Anim. Behav. 70:1003–1009. , , and .
- 1995. Pursuit-deterrence revisited. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10:500–503.
- 1987. Pattern and adaptation in individual behavioral differences. Pp. 1–47 in P. P. G. Bateson and P. H. Klopfer, eds. Perspectives in ethology. Plenum Press, New York. , and .
- 2011. Behavioural syndromes in fishes: a review with implications for ecology and fisheries management. J. Fish Biol. 78:395–435. , , , , and .
- 2010. Personality traits and dispersal tendency in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). Proc. R. Soc. B 277:1571–1579. , , , , and .
- 2004. The behavioral ecology of personality: consistent individual differences from an adaptive perspective. Ecol. Lett. 7:734–739. , , and .
- 2009. Genetics of animal temperament: aggressive behavior at mixing is genetically associated with the response to handling in pigs. Animal 3:1544–1554. , , , , , , et al.
- 2005. Natural selection and animal personality. Behaviour 142:1165–1190. , and .
- 2007. Behavioural syndromes differ predictably between 12 populations of three-spined stickleback. J. Anim. Ecol. 76:1128–1138. , , , , , and .
- 2009. Individual experience and evolutionary history of predation affect expression of heritable variation in fish personality and morphology. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 276:1285–1293. , , , , , , et al.
- 2010. A method for exploring the structure of behavioural syndromes to allow formal comparison within and between data sets. Anim. Behav. 79:439–450. , , and .
- 2010. Behavioral syndromes: carryover effects, false discovery rates and a priori hypotheses. Behav. Ecol. 21:437–439.
- 2011. Testing Cheverud's conjecture for behavioral correlations and behavioral syndromes. Evolution 65:1814–1820.
- 2007. Behavioural syndromes in Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami): a test of competing hypothesis. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 274:2343–2349. , and .
- 2010. Applying a quantitative genetics framework to behavioural syndrome research. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 365:4013–4020. , and .
- 2002. An experimental demonstration of direct behavioural interference in two Mediterranean lacertid lizard species. Anim. Behav. 63:1037–1046. , and .
- 2004. Distraction sneakers decrease the expected level of aggression within groups: a game-theoretic model. Am. Nat. 164:E32–E45. , , , , and .
- 2006. Behavioral correlations across breeding contexts provide a mechanism for a cost of aggression. Behav. Ecol. 17:1011–1019.
- 2008. Adaptive dispersal strategies and the dynamics of a range expansion. Am. Nat. 172:S4–S17.
- 2007. Coupling of dispersal and aggression facilitates the rapid range expansion of a passerine bird. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 104:15017–15022. , and .
- 2002. Direct interference or indirect exploitation? An experimental study of fitness costs of interspecific competition in voles. Oikos 99:580–590. , and .
- 2006. Quantitative genomics of aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2:1386–1395. , , , and .
- 1986. Spatial distribution and behavioural movements of migratory trout, Salmo trutta, in a Lake District stream. J. Anim. Ecol. 55:907–922.
- 1945. The relation between heredity, sexual activity and training to dominance-subordination in game cocks. Am. Nat. 79:142–151.
- 2009. Examining the social landscapes of alternative reproductive strategies. J. Evol. Biol. 22:2395–2408. , and .
- 2004. Spatial dynamics of alternative reproductive strategies: the role of neighbors. Ecology 85:1125–1136. , , , and .
- 1999. Geographic variation in behavior: Perspectives on evolutionary mechanisms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. , and .
- 1986. Interspecific interactions and diet of sympatric juvenile brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, and adult ninespine sticklebacks, Pungitius pungitius. J. Fish Biol. 28:133–140. , , , and .
- 1995. Who dares, benefits: predator approach behaviour in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) deters predator pursuit. Proc. R. Soc. B 259:193–200. , and .
- 2001. Ecological character displacement in brook sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans). Master's thesis, Department of Zoology, University of Guelph Guelph. Guelph, 100p.
- 2002. Experimental evidence that competition between stickleback species favours adaptive character divergence. Ecol. Lett. 5:264–272. , and .
- 2005. Testing alternative explanations of character shifts against ecological character displacement in brook sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans) that coexist with ninespine sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius). Oecologia 146:25–35. , , and .
- 2009. The role of interspecific interference competition in character displacement and the evolution of competitor recognition. Biol. Rev. 84:617–635. , , , and .
- 2008. Influence of predator density on nonindependent effects of multiple predator species. Oecologia 155:151–159. , and .
- 1942. Individual differences in aggressiveness in rats. J. Comp. Psychol. 33:371–383. , and .
- 1991. The comparative method in evolutionary biology. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK. , and .
- 1988. Heritable variation for territorial success in two Drosophila melanogaster populations. Anim. Behav. 36:1180–1189.
- 1999. Animal behavior: an essential component of invasion biology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 14:328–330. , and .
- 1976a. The relationship between inter- and intra-specific aggression. Anim. Behav. 24:485–497.
- 1976b. The relationship between anti-predator behaviour and aggression among conspecifics in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Anim. Behav. 24:245–260.
- 1982. Do inter- and intraspecific aggression vary in relation to predation pressure in sticklebacks? Anim. Behav. 30:909–916.
- 1999. Adaptation, exaptation, and constraint: a hormonal perspective. Am. Nat. 154:S4–S25. , and .
- 2009. Patterns of quantitative genetic variation in multiple dimensions. Genetica 136:271–284.
- 2007. A behavioural syndrome in the field cricket Gryllus integer: intrasexual aggression is correlated with activity in a novel environment. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. 91:475–482. , and .
- 2001. Variation in aggressive behaviour and growth rate between populations and migratory forms in the brown trout, Salmo trutta. Anim. Behav. 62:935–944. , , , and .
- 1979. Quantitative genetics analysis of multivariate evolution, applied to brain:body size allometry. Evolution 33:402–416.
- 1983. The measurement of selection on correlated characters. Evolution 37:1210–1226. , and .
- 2009. A behavioral syndrome linking courtship behavior toward males and females predicts reproductive success from a single mating in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa. Behav. Ecol. 20:781–788. , , , , and .
- 1995. Definitions of territoriality used in the study of variation in vertebrate spacing systems. Anim. Behav. 49:1581–1597. , and .
- 2010. Interacting phenotypes and the evolutionary process. III. Social evolution. Evolution 64:2558–2574. , , , and .
- 2002. Nonadditive genetic effects in animal behavior. Am. Nat. 160:S198–S213. , , and .
- 1995. Boldness and predator deterrence: a critique of Godin & Davis. Proc. R. Soc. B 262:103–105. , and .
- 1997. Interacting phenotypes and the evolutionary process: I. Direct and indirect effects of social interactions. Evolution 51:1352–1362. , , and .
- 2007. Behavioral syndromes and the evolution of correlated behavior in zebrafish. Behav. Ecol. 18:556–562. , , and .
- 2009. Species identity cues in animal communication. Am. Nat. 174:585–593. , and .
- 2011. Contrasting theory with the empirical data of species recognition. Evolution 65:2572–2591. , , and .
- 1974. Assessment strategy and the evolution of fighting behavior. J. Theor. Biol. 47:223–243.
- 2007. Heterospecific aggression and adaptive divergence in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans). Evolution 61:1327–1338. , and .
- 2010. Ecology and evolution of resource-related heterospecific aggression. Q. Rev. Biol. 85:133–158. , and .
- 2010. Bold minnows consistently approach danger in the field and lab in response to either chemical or visual indicators of predation risk. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 64:381–387. , , and .
- 1998. Variation in Pacific salmon reproductive behaviour associated with species, sex and levels of competition. Behavior 136:179–204.
- 2007. Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution. Biol. Rev. 82:291–318. , , , , and .
- 1993. A test for correlations among fitness-linked behavioural traits in the spider Agelenopsis aperta (Araneae, Agelendiae). Anim. Behav. 46:669–675. , and .
- 2011. Natural genetic variation in social niche construction: social effects of aggression drive disruptive sexual selection in Dropsophila melanogaster. Am. Nat. 177:645–654. , and .
- 2005. The mix matters: behavioural types and group dynamics in water striders. Behaviour 142:1417–1431. , and .
- 2004a. Behavioral syndromes: an ecological and evolutionary overview. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19:372–378. , , and .
- 2004b. Behavioral syndromes: an integrative overview. Q. Rev. Biol. 79:241–277. , , , and .
- 2002. Correlational selection and the evolution of genomic architecture. Heredity 89:329–338. , and .
- 2008. Fitness consequences of personality: a meta-analysis. Behav. Ecol. 19:448–455. , and .
- 2010. Behavioral types as predictors of survival in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Behav. Ecol. 21:919–926. , and .
- 2011. Low heritabilities, but genetic and maternal correlations between red squirrel behaviours. J. Evol. Biol. 25:614–624. , , , , , , et al.
- 2005. Effects of resource availability, predators, conspecifics and heterospecifics on decorating behavior by the majid crab Tiarinia cornigera. Mar. Biol. 147:1191–1199. , , , and .
- 1996. Exploration, aggressive behaviour and dominance in pair-wise confrontations of juvenile male great tits. Behaviour 133:945–963. , , and .
- 1966. The effect of exogenous hormones on aggressive and defensive behaviour in the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria). J. Endocrinol. 36:35–51. , and .
- 2010. Group selection and social evolution in domesticated animals. Evol. Appl. 3:453–465. , , , and .
- 1979. Sexual selection, social competition, and evolution. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 123:222–234.
- 1998. Adaptive individual differences within single populations. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 353:199–205.
- 2009. Indirect genetic effects and the evolution of aggression in a vertebrate system. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 276:533–541. , , , and .
- 2003. Genetic architecture and evolutionary constraint when the environment contains genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:4655–4660.
- 2010. Interacting phenotypes and indirect genetic effects: a genetic perspective on the evolution of social behavior. Pp. 225–245 in D. F. Westneat and C. W. Fox, eds. Evolutionary behavioral ecology. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. , and .
- 1999. Interacting phenotypes and the evolutionary process. II. Selection resulting from social interactions. Am. Nat. 153:254–266. , , and .
- 1976. The biology of the sticklebacks. Academic Press, Lond.
- 2003. Inter and intra-population variation in shoaling and boldness in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Naturwissenschaften 90:374–377. , , , , and .