• Open Access

Unique haplotypes in ant-attended aphids and widespread haplotypes in non-attended aphids

Authors

  • Izumi Yao,

    Corresponding author
    • Systematic Entomology, Department of Ecology and Systematics, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
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  • Takashi Kanbe

    1. Systematic Entomology, Department of Ecology and Systematics, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
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  • 21st COE on “Neo-Science of Natural History” Program at Hokkaido University. Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 17770010, 19570010, 21570012, and 24570016) to I. Y. financed by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

Correspondence

Izumi Yao, Systematic Entomology, Department of Ecology and Systematics, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan. Tel: +81 11 706 2486; Fax: +81 11 706 4939; E-mail: iyao@res.agr.hokudai.ac.jp

Abstract

Aphid species within the genus Tuberculatus Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) exhibit a variety of interactions with ants, ranging from close associations to non-attendance. A previous study indicated that despite wing possession, ant-attended Tuberculatus species exhibited low dispersal rates compared with non-attended species. This study examined if presence or absence of mutualistic interactions and habitat continuity of host plants affected intraspecific genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences. Sympatric ant-attended Tuberculatus quercicola (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and non-attended Tuberculatus paiki Hille Ris Lambers (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were collected from the daimyo oak Quercus dentata Thunberg (Fagales: Fagaceae) in Japan and examined for haplotype variability. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in 568 T. quercicola individuals representing 23 populations and seven haplotypes in 425 T. paiki representing 19 populations. Haplotype diversity, which indicates the mean number of differences between all pairs of haplotypes in the sample, and nucleotide diversity were higher in T. quercicola than T. paiki. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed higher genetic differentiation among populations within groups of T. quercicola (39.8%) than T. paiki (22.6%). The effects of attendant ant species on genetic differentiation in T. quercicola were not distinguishable from geographic factors. Despite low dispersal rates, host plant habitat continuity might facilitate widespread dispersal of a T. quercicola haplotype in Hokkaido. These results suggested that following T. quercicola colonization, gene flow among populations was limited, resulting in genetic drift within populations. However, frequent T. paiki dispersal is clearly evident by low genetic differentiation among populations within groups, resulting in lower haplotype diversity.

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