We are grateful to the following organizations for helping to fund this research: The Environment Agency (England & Wales), The Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust, The Westcountry Rivers Trust, and The University of Exeter.
The origins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recolonizing the River Mersey in northwest England
Article first published online: 11 SEP 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
Ecology and Evolution
Volume 2, Issue 10, pages 2537–2548, October 2012
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2012; 2(10): 2532–2543
- Issue published online: 11 OCT 2012
- Article first published online: 11 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 20 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Received: 3 JUL 2012
- The Environment Agency (England & Wales)
- The Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust
- The Westcountry Rivers Trust
- The University of Exeter
- The Environment Agency (England & Wales), The Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust, The Atlantic Salmon Trust, The Westcountry Rivers Trust, and The University of Exeter.
- Environment Agency 2000–2011. Salmonid and freshwater fisheries statistics for England and Wales. Environment Agency, England & Wales, Bristol BS32 4UD. Available at http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/research/library/publications/33945.aspx. Accessed July 18, 2012.
- 2007. Movements of adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchuskisutch) during colonization of newly accessible habitat. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 64:1143–1154. , and .
- 2006. Loss of regional population structure in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., following stocking. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63:1269–1273. , , and .
- 2001. Evaluation and application of microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex variation for stock identification of cohosalmon in British Columbia. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 130:1116–1149. , , , , , , et al.
- 2011. A comparison of polymorphism of genetic markers and population sample sizes required for mixed-stock analysis of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchusnerka) in British Columbia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 68:550–562. , , and .
- 2012. Salmon behaviour in the Mersey catchment. The Mersey Life Project. Technical Report, Environment Agency, England & Wales, Bristol BS32 4UD. Available at http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/homeandleisure/wildlife/102362.aspx (accessed May 4, 2012). .
- 1973. The Dark River. John Sherratt and Sons Ltd, Altrincham.
- 2003. The Mersey Basin: an historical assessment of water quality from an anecdotal perspective. Sci. Total Environ. 314–316:53–66.
- 2008. Effects of microsatellite null alleles on assignment testing. J. Hered. 99:616–623.
- 1986. Recovery of benthic invertebrate communities in silver bow creek, Montana, following improved metal mine wastewater treatment. Water Air Soil Pollut. 28:427–438. , , and .
- 2003. Bayesian analysis of genetic differentiation between populations. Genetics 163:367–374. , , and .
- 1999. New methods employing multilocus genotypes to select or exclude populations as origins of individuals. Genetics 153:1989–2000. , , , , and .
- 2010. Fifth otter survey of England 2009 – 2010. Technical Report, Environment Agency, England & Wales, Bristol BS32 4UD. Available at http://publications.environment-agency.gov.uk/PDF/GEHO1010BTDJ-E-E.pdf. Accessed July 18, 2012. .
- 2011. Microsatellite standardization and evaluation of genotyping error in a large multi-partner research programme for conservation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Genetica 139:353–367. , , , , , , et al.
- 1996. Rapid one-tube DNA extraction for reliable PCR detection of fish polymorphic markers and transgenes. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechol. 5:295–298. , , , and .
- 2005. Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol. Ecol. 14:2611–2620. , , and .
- 2010. Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Mol. Ecol. Res. 10:564–567. , and .
- 2008. Assessing the long-term genetic impact of historical stocking events on contemporary populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Fish. Manage. Ecol. 15:315–326. , and .
- 2008. How well can captive breeding programs conserve biodiversity? a review of salmonids. Evol. Appl. 1:535–586.
- 1998. Ocean climate influences on critical Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) life history events. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55(Suppl. 1):119–130.
- 2000. Linkage between ocean climate, post-smolt growth, and survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the North Sea area. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57:419–429. , , , and .
- 1953. The middle Mersey and the chemical area. Pp. 299 in W. Smith, ed. A scientific survey of Merseyside. Univ. of Liverpool Press, Liverpool. , , and .
- 2009. Comparison of patterns of genetic variability in wild and supportively bred stocks of brown trout, Salmo trutta. Fish. Manage. Ecol. 16:514–519. , , and .
- 2010. Genetic stock identification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations in the southern part of the European range. BMC Genet. 11:31. , , , , , , et al.
- 2011. Restoration versus recolonisation: the origin of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) currently in the river Thames. Biol. Conserv. 144:2733–2738. , , , , , , et al.
- 1999. The consequences of landscape change: principles and practice; problems and opportunities. Pp. 243–261 in E. F. Greenwood, ed. Ecology and landscape development: a history of the Mersey Basin. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool. , and .
- 1977. Density currents in the Irish Sea. Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 51:393–429. , and .
- 1984. Mersey. Pp. 113–144 in B. A. Whitton, ed. Ecology of European Rivers. Blackwell, Oxford. , and .
- 2008. The nature of fisheries- and farming-induced evolution. Mol. Ecol. 17:294–313. , and .
- 2000. The Mersey estuary – back from the dead? Solving a 150-year old problem. Water Environ. J. 14:124–130.
- 2006. Water quality and fisheries in the Mersey estuary, England: a historical perspective. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 53:144–154.
- 2008. ONCOR: a computer program for genetic stock identification, v.2.Available at http://www.montana.edu/kalinowski/Software/ONCOR.htm. Department of Ecology, Montana State University, Bozeman, USA (accessed March 28, 2012). , , and .
- 2009. Changes in fish communities following recolonization of the Cedar River, WA, USA by Pacific salmon after 103 years of local extirpation. River Res. Appl. 25:438–452. , , , , , and .
- 2005. Microsatellite DNA markers for the study of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kinship, population structure, and mixed-fishery analyses. Mol. Ecol. Notes 5:130–132. , , and .
- 1991. A mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism of potential use for discrimination of farmed Norwegian and wild Atlantic salmon populations in Scotland. Aquaculture 98:249–257. , and .
- 2001. Genetic evidence for mixed origin of recolonized sea trout populations. Heredity 87:207–214. , , and .
- 2006. Relative performance of Bayesian clustering software for inferring population substructure and individual assignment at low levels of population differentiation. Conserv. Genet. 7:295–302. , , , and .
- 2011. Influence of dams on river ecosystem and its countermeasures. J. Water Resou. Prot. 3:60–66.
- 1995. Isolation of salmonid microsatellite loci and their application to the population genetics of Canadian east coast stocks of Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 137:19–30. , , , , , , et al.
- 2009. Impact of naturally spawning captive-bred Atlantic salmon on wild populations: depressed recruitment and increased risk of climate-mediated extinction. Proc. R. Soc. B276:3601–3610. , , , , , ,et al.
- 2004. The role of stocking in recovery of the River Tyne salmon fisheries. Fisheries Technical Report No. 2004/1, Environment Agency, England & Wales, Bristol BS32 4UD. p. 68. , , , , and .
- 2004. SNPs in ecology, evolution and conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19:208–216. , , and .
- 2004. MICRO-CHECKER: software for identifying and correcting genotyping errors in microsatellite data. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4:535–538. , , , and .
- 1996. Rapid analysis of geneticvariation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) by PCR multiplexing of dinucleotide andtetranucleotide microsatellites. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53:2292–2298. , , , and .
- 1998. Why aren't there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55:281–287. , , , , and .
- 2004. Characterization and PCR multiplexing of novel highly variable tetranucleotide Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) microsatellites. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4:160–162. , , , , and .
- 2010. Natural recolonization of the Seine River by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) of multiple origins. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 67:1–4. , , , , and .
- 2004. GENECLASS2: a software for genetic assignment and first-generation migrant detection. J. Hered. 95:536–539. , , , , , and .
- 2009. Population genetics and PBDE analysis of English and Welsh otters. Environment Agency Science Report: SC040024/SR1. ISBN: 978-1-84911-113-3. Published by:Environment Agency, Bristol, UK. , , , and .
- 2000. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959. , , and .
- 1997. Detecting immigration by using multilocus genotypes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:9197–9201. , and .
- 1989. Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution 43:223–225.
- 1996. Protein and microsatellite single locus variability in Salmo salar L. (Atlantic salmon). Heredity 77:423–432. , , , , , , and .
- 2008. Are there Atlantic salmon in the River Tambre? J. Fish Biol. 72:1223–1229. , , and .
- 2005. Population genetics of the European trout (Salmo trutta L.) migration system in the river Rhine: recolonisation by sea trout. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 14:1–13. , and .
- 1984. Homing and olfaction in salmonids: a critical review with special reference to Atlantic salmon. Biol. Rev. 59:333–388.
- 2007. Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries 18:345–371. , , , and .
- 2008. Twenty years of hydropower regulation in the River Alta: long-term changes in abundance of juvenile and adult Atlantic salmon. Hydrobiologia 609:9–23. , , , , , and .
- 2001. Identification of the origin of an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) population in a recently recolonized river in the Baltic Sea. Mol. Ecol. 10:2877–2882. , , , , , and .
- 1988. The return of fish to the Mersey estuary. J. Fish Biol. 33(Suppl. A):235–238. , , and .