Molecular insights into the historic demography of bowhead whales: understanding the evolutionary basis of contemporary management practices
Article first published online: 26 FEB 2013
© 2012 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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Ecology and Evolution
Volume 3, Issue 1, pages 18–37, January 2013
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(1): 18–37
- Issue published online: 26 FEB 2013
- Article first published online: 26 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 7 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Received: 14 JUN 2012
- Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission. Grant Number: NA05NMF4391108
- North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management
- Approximate Bayesian computation;
- bowhead whale;
- generation time;
- historic demography;
- mutation rate.
Patterns of genetic variation observed within species reflect evolutionary histories that include signatures of past demography. Understanding the demographic component of species' history is fundamental to informed management because changes in effective population size affect response to environmental change and evolvability, the strength of genetic drift, and maintenance of genetic variability. Species experiencing anthropogenic population reductions provide valuable case studies for understanding the genetic response to demographic change because historic changes in the census size are often well documented. A classic example is the bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus, which experienced dramatic population depletion due to commercial whaling in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Consequently, we analyzed a large multi-marker dataset of bowhead whales using a variety of analytical methods, including extended Bayesian skyline analysis and approximate Bayesian computation, to characterize genetic signatures of both ancient and contemporary demographic histories. No genetic signature of recent population depletion was recovered through any analysis incorporating realistic mutation assumptions, probably due to the combined influences of long generation time, short bottleneck duration, and the magnitude of population depletion. In contrast, a robust signal of population expansion was detected around 70,000 years ago, followed by a population decline around 15,000 years ago. The timing of these events coincides to a historic glacial period and the onset of warming at the end of the last glacial maximum, respectively. By implication, climate driven long-term variation in Arctic Ocean productivity, rather than recent anthropogenic disturbance, appears to have been the primary driver of historic bowhead whale demography.