Intraspecific variation buffers projected climate change impacts on Pinus contorta
Article first published online: 17 JAN 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ecology and Evolution
Volume 3, Issue 2, pages 437–449, February 2013
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(2): 437–449
- Issue published online: 14 FEB 2013
- Article first published online: 17 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 6 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Received: 12 JUN 2012
- German Research Foundation (DFG)
- University of Bayreuth
Table S1. Observation data were gathered from many sources. The largest sources of data are listed first. Distributional data (Figure 1) were obtained from many sources, including government agencies, but also from online resources such as herbaria, botanical gardens, and plant databases.
Table S2. Prevalence data that was presented to the MaxEnt models for each modeling target. The sum of subspecies occurrences do not add to the amount of occurrences for the entire species, because the subspecies co-occur in several locations, which is counted as a single occurrence for the whole species.
Figure S1. Pinus contorta subspecies distributions were given a 1,000km buffer and were truncated in the areas where no survey data exists. The smaller (truncated) areas refer to the model-building or the training area. The models built were then projected to the full subspecies range i.e. entire 1000km buffer called “subsp. projection range”. Each subspecies has its own modeling and projection range (see text). The modeling range represents the areas, where presence-pseudoabsence data is available.
Figure S2. Pinus contorta subspecies distributions were projected for the current period of 1950–2000 and then combined afterwards (Equation 1). Subspecies' contorta a) murryana b) and c) latifolia were modeled within their habitats with a 1000km buffer and then projected to the North American continent.
Figure S3. Pinus contorta subspecies distributions were predicted for the future period of 2070–2100 and then combined afterwards (Equation 1). Subspecies contorta a) is predicted to shift up along coastal areas, whereas subsp. murrayana may lose a substantial amount of habitat, and latifolia should show a dramatic shift northwards.
|ece3426-sup-0002-SourceCodeS1.zip||Zip archive||77K||Source code S1. The R and GRASS code used to prepare, analyze and visualize the data in this study. Documentation is within the code as well as acknowledgements of the author(s) of the code.|
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