Invasion history and demographic pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 across European populations of the chestnut blight fungus
Article first published online: 22 NOV 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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Ecology and Evolution
Volume 2, Issue 12, pages 3227–3241, December 2012
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How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2012; 2(12): 3227–3241
- Issue published online: 13 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 22 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 9 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Received: 20 AUG 2012
- Swiss National Science Foundation
- Competence Center Environment and Sustainability of the ETH Domain. Grant Number: IZ73Z0-127922
- Biological control;
- coalescent analysis;
- Cryphonectria parasitica ;
- host–parasite coevolution;
- phylogenetic reconstruction;
- time to the most recent common ancestor
We reconstructed the invasion history of the fungal virus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) in Europe, which infects the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The pattern of virus evolution was inferred based on nucleotide sequence variation from isolates sampled across a wide area in Europe at different points in time. Phylogeny and time estimates suggested that CHV-1 was introduced together with its fungal host to Europe and that it rapidly colonized the central range along the south facing slopes of the Alps and the north-east facing slopes of the Dinaric Alps. These central populations were the source for two waves of simultaneous invasions toward the southern Balkans and Turkey, as indicated by migration rates. Our results showed that the evolutionary scenarios for CHV-1 and C. parasitica were spatially congruent. As infection with CHV-1 reduces the pathogenicity of C. parasitica toward the chestnut tree, CHV-1 invasions of the newly established C. parasitica populations probably prevented the development of devastating chestnut blight epidemics in Europe. We propose that in this, and supposedly in other pathosystems, geographic, vegetation-related, demographic, economic, and political factors may help explain the correlated invasion pattern of a parasite and its host.