Seasonal dimorphism in the horny bills of sparrows
Article first published online: 11 JAN 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ecology and Evolution
Volume 3, Issue 2, pages 389–398, February 2013
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(2): 389–398
- Issue published online: 14 FEB 2013
- Article first published online: 11 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 11 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Received: 9 AUG 2012
- 2004. Bmp4 and morphological variation of beaks in Darwin's finches. Science 305:1462–1465. , , , , and .
- 2006. The calmodulin pathway and evolution of elongated beak morphology in Darwin's finches. Nature 442:563–567. , , , , , and .
- 1984. Ecogeographical variation in size and proportions of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Ornithol. Monogr. 35:1–134.
- 2008. Model based inference in the life sciences: a primer on evidence. Springer. New York, NY.
- 1994. Sexual selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 624p.
- 2007. Selection for sexual bill dimorphism in ibises: an evaluation of hypotheses. Waterbirds 30:199–206. , and .
- 2008. Evolution on a local scale: developmental, functional, and genetic bases of divergence in bill form and associated changes in song structure between adjacent habitats. Evolution 62:1951–1964. , , , and .
- 1968. Life histories of North American cardinals. Grosbeaks, buntings, towhees, finches, sparrows, and allies. Part two. Dover Publications, New York, NY.
- 2010. Bill shape and sexual shape dimorphism between two species of temperate hummingbirds: black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri) and ruby-throated hummingbird (A. colubris). Auk 127:626–635. , and .
- 1983. The heritability of external morphology in Darwin's ground finches (Geospiza) on Isla Daphne Major, Galapágos. Evolution 37:877–894.
- 2002. What do different bill measures measure and what is the best method to use in granivorous birds? J. Field Ornithol. 71:606–611. , , and .
- 2008. Adaptive plasticity in female mate choice dampens sexual selection on male ornaments in the lark bunting. Science 319:459–462. , and .
- 1948. Seasonal bill variation in tree-sparrow. Brit. Birds 41:115–116.
- 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. 1st ed. John Murray, London. .
- 1954. Seasonal changes in bill length of certain passerine birds. Condor 56:142–149.
- 1961. Some seasonal changes in morphology of the Rufous-sided Towhee. Auk 63:313–321.
- 2012. A mechanism of extreme growth and reliable signaling in sexually selected ornaments and weapons. Science 337: 860–864. doi: 10.1126/science.1224286. , , , , and .
- 2005. Bill knob size and reproductive effort in common shelducks Tadorna tadorna. Wildfowl 55:49–60. , , , , , and .
- 2002. Ambient temperature in spring affects horn growth in male alpine ibexes. J. Mammal. 83:245–251. , , and .
- 1997. Sexual dimorphism in the canines and skulls of carnivores: effects of size, phylogeny, and behavioural ecology. J. Zool. 242:97–117. , and .
- 1987. Sexual dimorphism in the summer bill length of the Great Tit. Ardea 75:91–98.
- 1986. Ecology and evolution of Darwin's finches. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
- 2010. Bill size and dimorphism in tidal-marsh sparrows: island-like processes in a continental habitat. Ecology 91:2428–2436. , and .
- 2012. High summer temperature explains bill size variation in salt marsh sparrows. Ecography 35:146–152. , , , and .
- 2004. Ecology, behavior, and trophic adaptations of the salt marsh song sparrow Melospiza melodia samuelis: The importance of the tidal influence gradient. Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA 139 pages;
- 1986. Rates of hoof growth and wear in Holstein cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2148–2156. , , and .
- 2010. Epizootic of beak deformities among wild birds in Alaska: an emerging disease in North America? Auk 127:882–898. , , , , , , et al.
- 2012a. Microanatomy of passerine hard-cornified tissues: beak and claw structure of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). J. Morphol. 273:226–240. doi:10.1002/jmor.11023. , , , , and .
- 2012b. Evidence of accelerated beak growth associated with avian leratin disorder in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). J. Wildl. Dis. 48:686–694. , , and .
- 1997. Comparison of horn growth in captive and free-ranging Dall's rams. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:1154–1160. , and .
- 2009. Seasonal change in male and female bill knob size in the mute swan Cygnus olor. J. Avian Biol 40:511–519. , , and .
- 1984. Growth and abrasion of the oystercatcher bill in relation to dietary switches. Neth. J. Zool. 35:124–154.
- 1977. Seasonal variation in the genus Leucosticte in North America. Condor 79:76–86.
- 1954. Variation in breeding season and clutch size in song sparrows of the Pacific Coast. Condor 56:268–273.
- 1981. Over-winter mortality and sexual size dimorphism in the house sparrow. Auk 98:503–511. , and .
- 1996. Female choice for male morphological traits in house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Ethology 102:639–648.
- 1989. Wetland Seed Banks. Pp. 283–306 in M. A. Leck, V. T. Parker and R. L. Simpson, eds. Ecology of soil seed banks. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
- 1989. Season variation in bill morphology of nuthatches Sitta europaea: dietary adaptations or consequences? Ardea 77:117–125.
- 1987. Seasonal changes in bill length in summering mountain white-crowned sparrows. Condor 89:197–200. , and .
- 1984. The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in a population of Darwin's Finches. Am. Nat. 123:500–518.
- 1984. Life history traits and natural selection for small body size in a population of Darwin's finches. Evolution 38:483–494. , and .
- 2004. Extreme sexual dimorphism in Green Woodhoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureous) bill length: a case of sexual selection? Auk 121:178–183. , and .
- 2012. ImageJ, U. S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Available at http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/, 1997–2012. Accessed August 15, 2012.
- 1987. Geographic variation of sexual dimorphisms in size of savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis): a test of a hypothesis. Evolution 41:514–524.
- 2012. Role of testosterone and photoperiod in seasonal changes in horn growth and sperm variables in the Iberian ibex, a model for polygynous wild bovids. J. Endocrinol. 214:155–163. doi: 10.1530/JOE-12-0016 , , , , , and .
- 1966. Sexual dimorphism and differential niche utilization in birds. Condor 68:113–151.
- 1989. Ecological causes for the evolution of sexual dimorphism – a review of the evidence. Q. Rev. Biol. 64:419–461.
- 1979. Heritability of some morphological characters in a song sparrow population. Evolution 33:460–467. , and .
- 1986. Song Sparrows grow and shrink with age. Auk 103:210–212. , , and .
- StatSoft, Inc. 2011. STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 10. http://www.statsoft.com. Accessed September 10, 2011.
- 2010. Geographical variation in bill size across bird species provides evidence for Allen's Rule. Am. Nat. 176:188–197. , and .
- 2000. Sexual size dimorphism in shorebirds, gulls, and alcids: the influence of sexual and natural selection. Evolution 54:1404–1413. , , and .
- 2010. Heat exchange from the toucan bill reveals a controllable vascular thermal radiator. Science 325:468–470. , , and .
- 2000. Evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in a hummingbird. Science 289:441–443. , , , and .
- 2005. Phylogenetic analyses of dimorphism in primates: evidence for stronger selection on canine size than on body size. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 130:50–59. , , and .
- 1985. the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the skink Eumeces laticeps: an example of sexual selection. Can. J. Zool. 63:995–1002. , and .
- 1999. Biostatistical analysis. 4th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.