Pathways of introduction of the invasive aquatic plant Cabomba caroliniana
Article first published online: 15 APR 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Ecology and Evolution
Volume 3, Issue 6, pages 1427–1439, June 2013
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(6): 1427–1439
- Issue published online: 12 JUN 2013
- Article first published online: 15 APR 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 14 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 12 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Received: 11 OCT 2012
- Canadian Aquatic Invasive Species Network
- Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
- National Sciences and Engineering Research Council
- Canada Research
- genome size;
- haplotype network;
- invasive species;
- molecular variation;
The pathway and frequency of species' introductions can affect the extent, impact, and management of biological invasions. Here, we examine the pathway of introduction of the aquatic plant Cabomba caroliniana (fanwort) into Canada and the northern United States using plastid DNA sequence (intergenic spacers atpF-atpH, trnH-psbA, and trnL-trnF) and DNA content analyses. We test the hypothesis that the spread of fanwort is a result of commercial trade by comparing a Canadian population (Kasshabog Lake, ON) to native populations from southern U.S., introduced populations in northern U.S., and plants from commercial retailers. Thirteen plastid haplotypes were identified throughout North America, including one dominant haplotype, which was present in all C. caroliniana populations. Several rare haplotypes were used to infer shared colonization history. In particular, the Canadian population shared two rare alleles with a population from Massachusetts, suggesting range expansion of C. caroliniana from the northern U.S. However, the possibility of a commercial introduction cannot be excluded, as common alleles were shared between the Canadian population and both commercial and southern U.S. sources. Variation in C. caroliniana genome size was bimodal and populations were classified into “high” and “low” categories. The Canadian population had DNA contents similar to several northern U.S. populations (low DNA content). This may provide additional support for range expansion from these introduced populations rather than from commercial sources or populations in the southern U.S., which had high DNA content.