Table S1. Information about the examined colonies (N = 100): sex (M = male, F = female, I = Indeterminate); size (maximum height in cm); colonies' stage class for kinship relationship (C0 = <15 cm, C1 = 15–30 cm, C2 = 31–50 cm, C3 = >51 cm); estimated reproductive output [computed on the basis of the biometry and gonadal production of the colonies (Coma et al. 1995a,b, 1998)]; male reproductive success (i.e., the number of larvae that each male sired)

Table S2. (a) f estimator of FIS for the larval pool, the larval pool combined with parental population and all the colonies (in bold significant values after FDR); (b) null allele frequency per locus for all the colonies

Table S3. Multiple regression analysis to examine whether colony height (height) and male to female distance (distance) contributed to explain male reproductive success estimated with the surface brooding larvae of each distinct female colony (results from J4-1 and J4-2 were grouped as larvae belong to the same spawning). (a) Slopes (± SE) for the different variables, intercept (A), adjusted squared r (Adj R²). (b) Partial regression coefficients. Not significant (ns), ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05

Figure S1. Plot of LnP(D) as a function of the number of clusters (K) across the 20 runs.

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