Testing potential selective agents acting on leaf shape in Ipomoea hederacea: predictions based on an adaptive leaf shape cline
Article first published online: 20 JUN 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ecology and Evolution
Volume 3, Issue 8, pages 2409–2423, August 2013
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(8): 2409–2423
- Issue published online: 12 AUG 2013
- Article first published online: 20 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 6 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Received: 29 APR 2013
- NSERC Canada
- 1992. Fecundity allocation in herbaceous plants. Oikos 65:225–232. , and .
- 2009. Is there more insect folivory in warmer temperate climates? A latitudinal comparison of insect folivory in eastern North America. J. Ecol. 97:933–940. , and .
- 2004. Evolution of plant resistance and tolerance to frost damage. Ecol. Lett. 7:1199–1208. , , and .
- 2010. Fluctuating selection: the perpetual renewal of adaptation in variable environments. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 365:87–97.
- 1919. The compound interest law and plant growth. Ann. Bot. 33:353–360.
- 1984. The classical case of character release: Darwin's finches (Geospiza) on Isla Daphne Major, Galápagos. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 22:243–287. , and .
- 1998. Geographical variation and natural selection on a leaf shape polymorphism in the ivyleaf morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea). Ph.D. thesis, Duke University, Durham, NC.
- 2008. Natural selection on a leaf-shape polymorphism in the ivyleaf morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea). Evolution 62:1978–1990. , and .
- 1991. Herbivory and the evolution of leaf size and shape [and discussion]. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 333:265–272. , , and .
- 2007. Nighttime stomatal conductance and transpiration in C3 and C4 plants. Plant Physiol. 143:4–10. , , and .
- 2013. Ecological, physiological and molecular population genetics of a single-locus leaf shape cline in ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, Canada.
- 2013. Natural selection maintains a single-locus leaf shape cline in ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea. Mol. Ecol. 22:552–564. , and .
- 2008. Leaf shape variation and herbivore consumption and performance: a case study with Ipomoea hederacea and three generalists. Arthropod-Plant Interact. 2:9–19. , , , , and .
- 1996. The medionigra gene in the moth Panaxia dominula: the case for selection. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 351:1623–1634. , and .
- 2012. Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus. Biol. Lett. 8:609–612. , , , and .
- 1995. Rainfall and flowering synchrony in a tropical shrub: variable selection on the flowering time of Erythroxylum havanense. Evol. Ecol. 9:204–216. , and .
- 1986. Mode of reproduction and inheritance of leaf shape in Ipomoea hederacea. Weed Sci. 34:391–395.
- 2007. Time after time: flowering phenology and biotic interactions. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22:432–439. , , , , , and .
- 1981. Quantitative studies of the mating system in two sympatric species of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae). Genetica 57:93–98.
- 1986. Spatial-autocorrelation analysis of flower color polymorphisms within substructured populations of morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea). Am. Nat. 128:840–858. , and .
- 1947. The spread of a gene in natural conditions in a colony of the moth Panaxia dominula L. Heredity 1:143–174. , and .
- 1989. The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim. Biophy. Acta 990:87–92. , , and .
- 1987. Oscillating selection on Darwin's finches. Nature 327:511–513. , and .
- 1982. Convective heat transfer characteristics of toothed leaves. Oecologia 53:418–420. , and .
- 1980. Boundary layer conductance of the leaves of some tropical timber trees. Plant, Cell Environ. 3:443–450. , , and .
- 1988. Variation in leaf dissection and leaf energy budgets among populations of Achillea from an altitudinal gradient. Am. J. Bot. 75:1298–1306.
- 1990. Boundary layer properties of highly dissected leaves: an investigation using an electrochemical fluid tunnel. Plant, Cell Environ. 13:783–792. , and .
- 2009. Darwin's beautiful contrivances: evolutionary and functional evidence for floral adaptation. New Phytol. 183:530–545. , and .
- 1970. The reproductive strategy of higher plants: I. The concept of strategy with special reference to Senecia vulgaris L. J. Ecol. 58:681–698. , and .
- 2010. Mutualism variation in the nodulation response to nitrate. J. Evol. Biol. 23:2494–2500. , , and .
- 2010. PopTools version 3.2.5. Available at http://www.poptools.org (accessed May 20, 2012).
- 2005. Inbreeding depression and selfing rate of Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula (Convolvulaceae). Am. J. Bot. 92:1871–1877. , , and .
- 2002. A modern tool for classical plant growth analysis. Ann. Bot. 90:485–488. , , , and .
- 1995. Radiation frost susceptibility and the association between sky exposure and leaf size. Oecologia 103:43–48. , and .
- 1956. Further selection experiments on industrial melanism in the Lepidoptera. Heredity 10:287–301.
- 1996. Existence of ecotypes among populations of entireleaf morningglory (Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula). Weed Sci. 44:540–544. , and .
- 2006. Plant physiological ecology. Springer, New York, NY. , , and .
- 1988. Leaf temperatures during radiation frost part I. Observations. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 42:121–133. , and .
- 2006. SAS for Mixed Models. SAS Publishing, Cary, NC. , , , , and .
- 1998. Genetics and the analysis of quantitative traits. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. , and .
- 2011. The ecological causes of evolution. Trends Ecol. Evol. 26:514–522.
- 1992. Selective impact of herbivores. Pp. 301–325 in R. S. Fritz and E. L. Simms, eds. Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
- 2000. Chlorophyll fluorescence–a practical guide. J. Exp. Bot. 51:659–668. , and .
- 1987. Regression Analysis of Natural Selection: statistical Inference and Biological Interpretation. Evolution 41:1149–1161. , and .
- 2011. Putting plant resistance traits on the map: a test of the idea that plants are better defended at lower latitudes. New Phytol. 191:777–788. , , , , , , et al.
- 2011. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured. Ecol. Lett. 14:511–521. , , , and .
- 2011. The evolution and functional significance of leaf shape in the angiosperms. Funct. Plant Biol. 38:535–552. , , , , , , et al.
- 2005. Physicochemical and environmental plant physiology. Elsevier, Burlington, MI.
- 2005. Comparing the effects of genetic drift and fluctuating selection on genotype frequency changes in the Scarlet Tiger moth. Proc. Biol. Sci. 272:211–217.
- 1978. Search image for leaf shape in a butterfly. Science 200:1071–1073.
- 1919. The growth rate of an annual plant Helianthus. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U S A 5:135–144. , and .
- 2001. Computer-based analysis of steady-state and transient heat transfer of small-sized leaves by free and mixed convection. Plant Cell Environ. 24:631–640.
- 2002. Microsite characteristics of Muhlenbergia richardsonis (Trin.) Rydb., an alpine C4 grass from the White Mountains, California. Oecologia 132:501–508. , and .
- 2009. Standing genetic variation in FRIGIDA mediates experimental evolution of flowering time in Arabidopsis. Mol. Ecol. 18:2039–2049. , and .
- 1993. Tansley review No. 59. Leaf boundary layers. New Phytol. 125:477–507.
- 1989. The evolution of resistance to herbivory in Ipomoea purpurea. II. Natural selection by insects and costs of resistance. Evolution 43:573–585. , and .
- 2010. Quantifying evolutionary genetic constraints in the ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea. Int. J. Plant Sci. 171:972–986. , and .
- 2001. Diffuse selection on resistance to deer herbivory in the ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea. Am. Nat. 158:376–388. , and .
- 2006. Boundary layer conductance for contrasting leaf shapes in a deciduous broadleaved forest canopy. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 139:40–54. , , and .
- 1970. Convective cooling at low airspeeds and the shapes of broad leaves. J. Exp. Bot. 21:91–101.
- 1990. The causes of natural selection. Evolution 44:1947–1955. , and .
- 2011. The arcsine is asinine: the analysis of proportions in ecology. Ecology 92:3–10. , and .