Noncrop flowering plants restore top-down herbivore control in agricultural fields
Article first published online: 2 JUL 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Ecology and Evolution
Volume 3, Issue 8, pages 2634–2646, August 2013
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How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(8): 2634–2646
- Issue published online: 12 AUG 2013
- Article first published online: 2 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 31 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 23 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Received: 3 APR 2013
- Bristol Foundation
- Bundesamt für Umwelt
- SWO Stiftung Wirtschaft und Ökologie
- University of Innsbruck
Appendix S1. Molecular assays for detection of parasitism and predation.
Table S1. Primer names and sequences, expected product sizes in basepairs (Size) and used final primer concentrations in µmol/L (Conc.) for primers in two multiplex PCRs to detect DNA of the parasitoids Diadegma semiclausum and Cotesia rubecula in larvae of Plutella xylostella (A) and of parasitoids Microplitis mediator, Phryxe vulgaris and Cotesia sp. in larvae of Mamestra brassicae (B). The third multiplex assay (C) was used to screen invertebrate predators for DNA of P. xylostella, D. semiclausum, M. brassicae, M. mediator and Trichogramma brassicae.
Table S2. Nontarget taxa used for testing the specificity of the multiplex assay used to screen invertebrate predators for consumption of lepidopteran and parasitoid DNA and the type of sample used for the DNA extracts.
Table S3. Total abundances (sums of 16 traps) of all adult epigeic invertebrate predators collected alive for gut content analysis and dead for diversity and community composition analysis per habitat management treatment (n = 4463).
|ece3658-sup-0002-FigureS1.pdf||application/PDF||42K||Figure S1. Development of plant species composition and ground cover (%) of flowering plants in the two wildflower strips (S1, S2) over the study period.|
|ece3658-sup-0003-FigureS2.pdf||application/PDF||37K||Figure S2. Relative open flower availability of Centaurea cyanus and Fagopyrum esculentum in the two wildflower strips of field 1 (solid lines) and 2 (broken lines) over the study period.|
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