How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta
Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ecology and Evolution
Volume 3, Issue 9, pages 2795–2805, September 2013
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(9): 2795–2805
- Issue online: 8 SEP 2013
- Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 31 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 25 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Received: 30 JAN 2013
- Leverhulme Trust
- Wilderness Trust (H. L. A. B. B.)
- Dulverton Trust (S.H.)
- 1988. Forests too deer: edge effects in northern Wisconsin. Conserv. Biol. 2:348–358. , , and .
- 2005. Factors influencing female home range sizes in elk (Cervus elaphus) in North American landscapes. Landscape Ecol. 20:257–271. , , , , , , et al.
- 2010. Spatial heterogeneity in a dynamic wetland: determinants of herbivore distribution in the Okavango Delta and their relevance to conservation. Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol, Bristol, U.K.
- 2005. Measuring landscape connectivity: the challenge of behavioral landscape ecology. Ecology 86:1988–1995.
- 1986. Optimal foraging and community structure: implications for a guild of generalist grassland herbivores. Oecologia 70:35–52.
- 2000. The effect of tissue complexity and sward height on the functional response of wood bison. Funct. Ecol. 14:61–69. , , and .
- 2001. Ungulate foraging strategies: energy maximizing or time minimizing? J. Anim. Ecol. 70:289–300. , , , and .
- 1996. Effects of parturition on home ranges and social affiliations of female white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 60:899–909. , , , and .
- 1999. Vegetation ecology of the seasonal floodplains in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. M.Sc. thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
- 2007. Grazers species-packing in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Afr. J. Ecol. 45:527–534. , and .
- 2005. Elk alter habitat selection as an antipredator response to wolves. Ecology 86:3387–3397. , , , , and .
- 1990. Comparative nutrient extraction from forages by grazing bovids and equids: a test of the nutritional model of equid/bovid competition and coexistence. Oecologia 84:411–418. , , , , and .
- 1992. Ecological processes that affect populations in complex landscapes. Oikos 65:169–175. , , and .
- 2000. Floristic diversity in the Okavango Delta, Botswana as an endogenous product of biological activity. Pp. 195–226 in B. Gopal, W. J. Junk and J. A. Davis, eds. Biodiversity in wetlands: assessment, function and conservation. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. , , and .
- 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 34:487–515.
- 2007. Habitat use and movements of plains zebra (Equus burchelli) in response to predation danger from lions. Behav. Ecol. 18:725–729. , , , and .
- 2005. Wolves influence elk movements: behavior shapes a trophic cascade in Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 86:1320–1330. , , , , , and .
- 2010. Functional conservation areas and the future of Africa's wildlife. Afr. J. Ecol. 49:175–188. , and .
- 1990. Elemental and fibre contents of savanna grasses: variation with grazing, soil type, season and species. J. Appl. Ecol. 27:623–634. , and .
- 2004. Forecasting the spatial extent of the annual flood in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. J. Hydrol. 290:178–191. , , , and .
- 1968. Selection of vegetation components by grazing ungulates in Serengeti National Park. Nature 220:390–393. , and .
- 1997. New threats to the Okavango Delta of Botswana. Oryx 31:86–89. , , , , , , et al.
- 2007. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands. Ecol. Appl. 17:974–988. , and .
- 2003. Herbivore functional response in heterogeneous environments: a contest among models. Ecology 84:666–681. , , , , and .
- 1999. The animal movement program version 2. Alaska Biological Science, Centre United States Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK. , , and .
- 2001. African climate change: 1900–2100. Clim. Res. 17:145–168. , , , , and .
- 1990. Wildlife, forests, and forestry: principles of managing forests for biological diversity. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
- 2002. The FocalPatch ArcView 3.x extension. Available at http://gis.washington.edu/phurvitz/av_devel/focalpatch/index.html (accessed 28 October 2009).
- 2004. Relating resources to a probabilistic measure of space use: forest fragments and Steller's jays. Ecology 85:1411–1427. , , , and .
- 2004. Causes and possible solutions to water resource conflicts in the Okavango River Basin: the case of Angola, Namibia and Botswana. Phys. Chem. Earth 29:1319–1326.
- 1998. The Okavango Delta. Trans. R. Soc. S. Afr. 53:157–182. , and .
- 2000. Seasonal flooding in the Okavango Delta, Botswana – recent history and future prospects. S. Afr. J. Sci. 96:25–33. , , , and .
- 2002. FRAGSTATS v3: spatial pattern analysis program for categorical maps. Available at http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/fragstats.html (accessed 28 October 2009). , , , and .
- 1988. Food, predation risk, and microhabitat selection in a marsh fish assemblage. Ecology 69:1341–1351. , and .
- 2002. Comparative foraging and nutrition of horses and cattle in European wetlands. J. Appl. Ecol. 39:120–133. , , , , and .
- 2010. Okavango Delta: floods of life. RAISON, Windhoek, Namibia. , , , , , and .
- 2004. A mechanistic home range model for optimal use of spatially distributed resources. Ecol. Model. 177:209–232. , and .
- 2003. Influence of seasonal flooding on soil total nitrogen, organic phosphorus and microbial populations in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. J. Arid Environ. 54:359–369. , , , and .
- 1996. Insularization of Tanzanian parks and the local extinction of large mammals. Conserv. Biol. 10:1549–1556.
- 1989. Weather-dependent use of habitat patches by wintering woodland birds. J. Field Ornithol. 60:241–247.
- 2000. Animal home ranges and territories and home range estimators. Pp. 65–110 in L. Boitani and T. K. Fuller, eds. Research techniques in animal ecology: controversies and consequences. Columbia Univ. Press, New York
- 1996. Ecology and behaviour of the African buffalo: social inequality and decision making. Chapman & Hall, London.
- 1977. Optimal foraging: a selective review of theory and tests. Q. Rev. Biol. 52:137–154. , , and .
- 2006. Species diversity of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Aquat. Sci. 68:310–337. , , , , , , et al.
- 2005. The influence of landscape structure on female roe deer home-range size. Landscape Ecol. 20:1003–1012. , and .
- 2002. The human footprint and the last of the wild. Bioscience 52:891–904. , , , , , and .
- 1991. Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review. Conserv. Biol. 5:18–32. , , and .
- 2003. Environmental autocorrelation: curse or blessing? Trends Ecol. Evol. 18:212–214.
- Animal Care and Use Committee of the American Society of Mammalogists 2011. Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research. J. Mammal. 92:235–253. , ;
- 1990. The mammals of the Southern African subregion. University Of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. , and .
- 1992. Mechanisms of foraging in mammalian herbivores: new models of functional response. Am. Nat. 140:325–348. , and .
- 1982. Resource competition and community structure. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ.
- 1996. Habitat use and ecological correlates of home range size in a small cervid: the roe deer. J. Anim. Ecol. 65:715–724. , , and .
- 2000. Ecological-economic analysis of wetlands: scientific integration for management and policy. Ecol. Econ. 35:7–23. , , , , , , et al.
- 2009. Behavioral adjustments of African herbivores to predation risk by lions: spatiotemporal variations influence habitat use. Ecology 90:23–30. , , , , , , et al.
- 1975. Comparison of several probabilistic home-range models. J. Wildl. Manage. 39:118–123.
- 1999. Resource partitioning between sympatric wild and domestic herbivores in the Tarangire region of Tanzania. Oecologia 120:287–294. , and .
- 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. J. Ecol. 35:1–22.
- 2009. The status of protected areas compared to non-protected areas of Kenya. PLoS One 4:e6140. , , and .
- 2009. Factors limiting our understanding of ecological scale. Ecol. Complex. 6:150–159. , and .
- 1977. The role of mosaic phenomena in natural communities. Theor. Popul. Biol. 12:117–139. , and .
- 2008. ‘Alternative futures’ of the Okavango Delta simulated by a suite of global climate and hydro-ecological models. Water SA 34:605–610. , and .
- 1989. Kernel methods for estimating the utilization distribution in home-range studies. Ecology 70:164–168.
- 1999. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Sadler River, NJ