Nonconsumptive effects in a multiple predator system reduce the foraging efficiency of a keystone predator
Article first published online: 1 AUG 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Ecology and Evolution
Volume 3, Issue 9, pages 3063–3072, September 2013
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(9): 3063–3072
- Issue published online: 8 SEP 2013
- Article first published online: 1 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 21 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 21 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 7 APR 2013
- National Science Foundation. Grant Number: DEB-0716558
- National Science Foundation. Grant Number: DEB-1050459
|ece3691-sup-0001-AppendixS1.docx||Word document||14K||Appendix S1. Studies evaluating the contribution of NCEs of predators to emergent MPEs.|
|ece3691-sup-0002-AppendixS2.doc||Word document||32K||Appendix S2. Supplementary methods.|
|ece3691-sup-0003-AppendixS3.doc||Word document||40K||Appendix S3. Original ANOVA results from planned contrasts testing the eight hypotheses pertaining to the impact of predators on the instantaneous mortality rates of Bufo terrestris. P-values have not been adjusted. The degrees of freedom for contrasts are 136 in all cases. Ho refers to the null hypothesis being tested by the contrast. µa represents the mortality risk (CE) imposed by Anax, µn represents the mortality risk (CE) imposed by newts, µn represents the background mortality rate in the absence of predators, j represents the extent to which the NCE of Anax alters the CE of newts, and p represents the extent to which the NCE of newts alters the CE of Anax.|
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