Simulated climate change conditions unveil the toxic potential of the fungicide pyrimethanil on the midge Chironomus riparius: a multigeneration experiment

Authors

  • Ruth Müller,

    1. LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    2. Department of Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe University, Siesmayerstr. 70, D-60323 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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  • Anne Seeland,

    1. LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    2. Department of Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe University, Siesmayerstr. 70, D-60323 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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  • Lucas S. Jagodzinski,

    1. LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    2. School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science, National University Ireland, Distillery Fields, North Mall, Cork, Ireland
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  • Joao B. Diogo,

    1. LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    2. Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum, Clamecystraße 12, Gelnhausen, D-63571 Gelnhausen, Germany
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  • Carsten Nowak,

    1. LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    2. Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum, Clamecystraße 12, Gelnhausen, D-63571 Gelnhausen, Germany
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  • Jörg Oehlmann

    1. LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    2. Department of Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe University, Siesmayerstr. 70, D-60323 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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  • Funded by the research funding programme ‘LOEWE, Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz’ of Hesse’s Ministry of Higher Education, Research, and the Arts.

Ruth Müller, LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Tel: 0049-69-798-24882; Fax: 0049-69-798-24748; E-mail: ruthmueller@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

Abstract

Although it has been suggested that temperature increase may alter the toxic potential of environmental pollutants, few studies have investigated the potential risk of chemical stressors for wildlife under Global Climate Change (GCC) impact. We applied a bifactorial multigeneration study in order to test if GCC conditions alter the effects of low pesticide concentrations on life history and genetic diversity of the aquatic model organism Chironomus riparius. Experimental populations of the species were chronically exposed to a low concentration of the fungicide pyrimethanil (half of the no-observed-adverse-effect concentration: NOAEC/2) under two dynamic present-day temperature simulations (11.0–22.7°C; 14.0–25.2°C) and one future scenario (16.5–28.1°C). During the 140-day multigeneration study, survival, emergence, reproduction, population growth, and genetic diversity of C. riparius were analyzed. Our results reveal that high temperature and pyrimethanil act synergistically on the midge C. riparius. In simulated present-day scenarios, a NOAEC/2 of pyrimethanil as derived from a life-cycle toxicity test provoked only slight-to-moderate beneficial or adverse effects on C. riparius. In contrast, exposure to a NOAEC/2 concentration of pyrimethanil at a thermal situation likely for a summer under GCC conditions uncovered adverse effects on mortality and population growth rate. In addition, genetic diversity was considerably reduced by pyrimethanil in the future scenario, but only slightly under current climatic conditions. Our multigeneration study under near-natural (climatic) conditions indicates that not only the impact of climate change, but also low concentrations of pesticides may pose a reasonable risk for aquatic insects in future.

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