SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abraham, K. F., and J. E. Thompson. 1998. Defining the Pen Islands caribou herd of southern Hudson Bay. Rangifer, Special Issue 10:3340.
  • Agosta, S. J., and J. A. Klemens. 2008. Ecological fitting by phenotypically flexible genotypes: implications for species associations, community assembly and evolution. Ecol. Lett. 11:11231134.
  • Alisauskas, R. T., R. F. Rockwell, K. W. Dufour, E. G. Cooch, G. Zimmermen, K. L. Drake, et al. 2011. Effect of population reduction efforts on harvest, survival and population growth of Midcontinent lesser snow geese. Wildlife Monogr. 179:142.
  • Amstrup, S. C., I. Stirling, T. S. Smith, C. Perham, and G. W. Thiemann. 2006. Recent observations of intraspecific predation and cannibalism among polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Polar Biol. 29:9971002.
  • Amstrup, S. C., B. G. Marcot, and D. C. Douglas. 2007. Forecasting the range-wide status of polar bears at selected times in the 21st Century. Administrative Report. U.S Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska.
  • Beckmann, J. P., and J. Berger. 2003. Rapid ecological and behavioural changes in carnivores: the responses of black bears (Ursus americanus) to altered food. J. Zool. 261:207212.
  • Best, R. C. 1985. Digestibility of ringed seals by the polar bear. Can. J. Zool. 63:10331036.
  • Brook, R. K., and E. S. Richardson. 2002. Observations of polar bear predatory behaviour toward caribou. Arctic 55:193196.
  • Brunner, H., and B. Coman. 1974. The identification of mammalian hair. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Cahill, J. A., R. E. Green, T. L. Fulton, M. Stiller, F. Jay, N. Ovsyanikov, et al. 2013. Genomic evidence for island population conversion resolves conflicting theories of polar bear evolution. PLoS Genet. 9:e1003345. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003345
  • Clark, D. A., I. Stirling, and W. Calvert. 1997. Distribution, characteristics, and use of earth dens and related excavations by polar bears on the western Hudson Bay lowlands. Arctic 50:158166.
  • Derocher, A. E., and I. Stirling. 1990. Distribution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during the ice-free period in western Hudson Bay. Can. J. Zool. 68:13951403.
  • Derocher, A. E., and Ø. Wiig. 1999. Infanticide and cannibalism of juvenile polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in Svalbard. Arctic 52:307310.
  • Derocher, A. E., D. Andriashek, and I. Stirling. 1993. Terrestrial foraging by polar bears during the ice-free period in western Hudson Bay. Arctic 46:251254.
  • Derocher, A. E., Ø. Wiig, and G. Bangjord. 2000. Predation of Svalbard reindeer by polar bears. Polar Biol. 23:675678.
  • Derocher, A. E., N. J. Lunn, and I. Stirling. 2004. Polar bears in a warming climate. Integr. Comp. Biol. 44:163176.
  • Derocher, A. E., J. Aars, S. C. Amstrup, A. Cutting, N. J. Lunn, P. K. Molnár, et al. 2013. Rapid ecosystem change and polar bear conservation. Conserv. Lett. 00:18.
  • Dove, C. J., and A. Agreda. 2007. Differences in plumulaceous feather characteristics of dabbling and diving ducks. Condor 109:192199.
  • Dredge, L. A. 1992. Field guide to the Churchill, Manitoba region. Geological Survey of Canada, Miscellaneous Report Vol. 53, 152.
  • Drent, R., and J. Prop. 2008. Barnacle goose Branta leucopsis survey on Nordenskiöldkysten, west Spitsbergen 1975–2007: breeding in relation to carrying capacity and predator impact. Circumpolar Stud. 4:5983.
  • Dyck, M. G., and K. J. Daley. 2001. Cannibalism of a yearling polar bear (Ursus maritimus) at Churchill, Canada. Arctic 55:190192.
  • Dyck, M. G., and E. Kebreab. 2009. Estimating the energetic contribution of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) summer diets to the total energy budget. J. Mammal. 90:585593.
  • Dyck, M. G., and S. Romberg. 2007. Observations of a wild polar bear (Ursus maritimus) successfully fishing Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis). Polar Biol. 30:16251628.
  • Edwards, C. J., A. E. Derocher, K. A. Hobson, M. Branigan, and J. A. Nagy. 2011. Ancient hybridization and an Irish origin for the modern polar bear matriline. Curr. Biol. 21:12511258.
  • Elmhagen, B., M. Tannerfeldt, P. Verucci, and A. Angerbjörn. 2000. The arctic fox (Alopex lagopus): an opportunistic specialist. J. Zool. (Lond.) 251:139149.
  • Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia II: a source book for edible plants. 2nd ed. Kampong publications, Vista, CA.
  • Gagnon, A. S., and W. A. Gough. 2005. Trends in the dates of ice freeze-up and breakup over Hudson Bay, Canada. Arctic 58:370382.
  • Gende, S. M., and T. P. Quinn. 2004. The relative importance of prey density and social dominance in determining energy intake by bears feeding on Pacific salmon. Can. J. Zool. 82:7585.
  • Gormezano, L. J., and R. F. Rockwell. Dietary composition and spatial patterns of polar bear foraging on land in western Hudson Bay. BMC Ecol. In review.
  • Grahl-Nielsen, O., M. Andersen, A. E. Derocher, C. Lydersen, Ø. Wiig, and K. M. Kovacs. 2003. Fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of polar bears and of their prey: ringed seals, bearded seals and harp seals. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 265:275282.
  • Hailer, H., V. E. Kutschera, B. M. Hallström, D. Klassert, S. R. Fain, J. A. Leonard, et al. 2012. Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage. Science 336:344347.
  • Hanson, H. C., H. G. Lumsden, J. J. Lynch, and H.W. Norton. 1972. Population characteristics of three mainland colonies of the Blue and Lesser Snow Geese nesting in the southern Hudson Bay region. Research Report (Wildlife) 92, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.
  • Harrington, C. R. 1965. The life and status of the polar bear. Oryx 8:169176.
  • Hewitt, D. G., and C. T. Robbins. 1996. Estimating grizzly bear food habits from fecal analysis. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 24:547550.
  • Hilderbrand, G. V., S. G. Jenkins, C. C. Schwartz, T. A. Hanley, and C. T. Robbins. 1999. Effect of seasonal differences in dietary meat intake on changes in body mass and composition in wild and captive brown bears. Can. J. Zool. 77:16231630.
  • Hobson, K. A., I. Stirling, and D. S. Andriashek. 2009. Isotopic homogeneity of breath CO2 from fasting and berry-eating polar bears: implications for tracing reliance on terrestrial foods in a changing Arctic. Can. J. Zool. 87:5055.
  • Hobson, K. A., C. M. Sharp, R. L. Jefferies, R. F. Rockwell, and K. F. Abraham. 2011. Nutrient allocation strategies to eggs by lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens) at a sub-arctic colony. Auk 128:156165.
  • Holm, S. 1979. A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scand. J. Stat. 6:6570.
  • Huffman, M. A. 2003. Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine: exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants. Proc. Nut. Soc. 62:371381.
  • Iles, D. T., S. L. Peterson, L. J. Gormezano, D. N. Koons, and R. F. Rockwell. 2013. Terrestrial predation by polar bears: not just a wild goose chase. Polar Biol. doi: 10.1007/s00300-013- 1341-510.1007/s00300- 013-1341-5
  • Iversen, M., J. Aars, T. Haug, I. G. Alsos, C. Lydersen, L. Bachmann, et al. 2013. The diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway, inferred from scat analysis. Polar Biol. 36:561571.
  • Jefferies, R. L., A. P. Jano, and K. F. Abraham. 2006. A biotic agent promotes large-scale catastrophic change in the coastal marshes of Hudson Bay. J. Ecol. 94:234242.
  • Johnson, K. L. 1987. Wildflowers of Churchill and the Hudson Bay region. Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
  • Kerbes, R. H., K. M. Meeres, R. T. Alisauskas, F. D. Caswell, K. F. Abraham, and R. K. Ross. 2006. Surveys of nesting mid-continent lesser snow geese and Ross's geese in eastern and central arctic Canada, 1997–98. Canadian Wildlife Service Technical Report Series 447, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
  • Knudsen, B. 1978. Time budgets of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) on North Twin Island, James Bay, during summer. Can. J. Zool. 56:16271628.
  • Koettlitz, R. 1898. Contributions to the natural history of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus, Linn.). Proc. R. Phys. Soc. 14:78112.
  • Krebs, C. J., and J. H. Myers. 1974. Population cycles in small mammals. Adv. Ecol. Res. 8:267399.
  • Latour, P. B. 1981. Spatial relationships and behavior of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps) concentrated on land during the ice-free season of Hudson Bay. Can. J. Zool. 59:17631774.
  • Lunn, N. 2008. Polar bears and climate change in western Hudson Bay. Wapusk News 1:13.
  • Lunn, N. J., and G. B. Stenhouse. 1985. An observation of possible cannibalism by polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Can. J. Zool. 63:1516.
  • Lunn, N. J., and I. Stirling. 1985. The significance of supplemental food to polar bears during the ice-free period of Hudson Bay. Can. J. Zool. 63:22912297.
  • Madsen, J., T. Bregnballe, J. Frikke, and I. B. Kristensen. 1998. Correlates of predator abundance with snow and ice conditions and their role in determining timing of nesting and breeding success in Svalbard Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota. Nor. Polarinst. Skr. 200:221234.
  • Marles, R. J., C. Clavelle, L. Monteleone, N. Tays, and D. Burns. 2000. Aboriginal plant use in Canada's northwest boreal forest. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.
  • McKeown, D. B. 1996. Eating and drinking behavior in the dog. Pp. 125140 in L. Ackerman, G. Landsberg, W. Hunthausen, eds. Dog behavior and training: veterinary advice for owners. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ.
  • McKnight, K. H., and V. B. McKnight. 1998. A field guide to mushrooms: North America (Peterson Field Guide). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Florida.
  • McMillan, C., P. L. Parker, and B. Fry. 1980. 13C/12C ratios in seagrasses. Aquat. Bot. 9:237249.
  • Miller, G. D., and D. R. Woolridge. 1983. Small game hunting behaviour of polar bears, Ursus maritimus. Can. Field-Nat. 97:9394.
  • Miller, W., S. C. Schuster, A. J. Welch, A. Ratan, O. C. Bedoya-Reina, F. Zhao, et al. 2012. Polar and brown bear genomes reveal ancient admixture and demographic footprints of past climate change. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 109:E2382E2390.
  • Molnár, P. K., A. E. Derocher, G. W. Thiemann, and M. A. Lewis. 2010. Predicting survival, reproduction and abundance of polar bears under climate change. Biol. Conserv. 143:16121622.
  • Parks, E. K., A. E. Derocher, and N. J. Lunn. 2006. Seasonal and annual movement patterns of polar bears on the sea ice of Hudson Bay. Can. J. Zool. 84:12811294.
  • Pedersen, A. 1966. Polar Animals. Taplinger Publishing, New York, NY.
  • Persson, I. L., S. Wikan, J. E. Swenson, and I. Mysterud. 2001. The diet of the brown bear Ursus arctos in the Pasvik Valley, northeastern Norway. Wildl. Biol. 7:2737.
  • Pond, C. M., C. A. Mattacks, R. H. Colby, and M. A. Ramsay. 1992. The anatomy, chemical composition, and metabolism of adipose tissue in wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Can. J. Zool. 70:326341.
  • Post, L. 2005. The bird building book: a manual for preparing bird skeletons with a bone identification guide. L. Post, Homer, Alaska.
  • Ramsay, M. A., and K. A. Hobson. 1991. Polar bears make little use of terrestrial food webs: evidence from stable-carbon isotope analysis. Oecologia 86:598600.
  • Regehr, E. V., N. J. Lunn, S. C. Amstrup, and I. Stirling. 2007. Survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay in relation to earlier sea ice breakup. J. Wildl. Manage. 71:26732683.
  • Reynolds, J. C., and N. J. Aebischer. 1991. Comparison and quantification of carnivore diet by faecal analysis: a critique, with recommendations, based on a study of fox Vulpes vulpes. Mamm. Rev. 21:97122.
  • Ritchie, J. C. 1960. The vegetation of northern Manitoba. V. Establishing the major zonation. Arctic 13:210229.
  • Robbins, C. T., C. Lopez-Alfaro, K. D. Rode, Ø. Tøien, and O. L. Nelson. 2012. Hibernation and seasonal fasting in bears: the energetic costs and consequences for polar bears. J. Mammal. 93:14931503.
  • Rockwell, R. F., and L. J. Gormezano. 2009. The early bear gets the goose: climate change, polar bears and lesser snow geese in western Hudson Bay. Polar Biol. 32:539547.
  • Rockwell, R. F., L. J. Gormezano, and D. Hedman. 2008. Grizzly bears, Ursus arctos, in Wapusk National Park, northeastern Manitoba. Can. Field-Nat. 122:323326.
  • Rockwell, R. F., et al. 2009. Birds of Wapusk National Park. Wapusk National Park of Canada Occasional Paper 1, Parks Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
  • Rockwell, R. F., L. J. Gormezano, and D. N. Koons. 2011. Trophic matches and mismatches: can polar bears reduce the abundance of nesting snow geese in western Hudson Bay? Oikos 120:696709.
  • Rodríguez, C., J. Naves, A. Fernández-GillJ. R. Obeso, and M. Delibes. 2007. Long-term trends in food habits of a relict brown bear population in northern Spain: the influence of climate and local factors. Environ. Conserv. 34:3644.
  • Russell, R. H. 1971. Summer and autumn food habits of island and mainland populations of polar bears – a comparative study. [M.Sc. thesis], University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
  • Russell, R. H. 1975. The food habits of polar bears of James Bay and southwest Hudson Bay in summer and autumn. Arctic 28:117129.
  • Samelius, G., and R. T. Alisauskas. 1999. Diet and growth of glaucous gulls at a large Arctic goose colony. Can. J. Zool. 77:13271331.
  • Scott, P. A. 1993. Relationship between the onset of winter and collared lemming abundance at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada: 1932-90. Arctic 46:293296.
  • Singer, M. S., and E. A. Bernays. 2003. Understanding omnivory needs a behavioral perspective. Ecology 84:25322537.
  • Smith, P. A., K. H. Elliott, A. J. Gaston, and H. G. Gilchrist. 2010. Has early ice clearance increased predation on breeding birds by polar bears? Polar Biol. 33:11491153.
  • Stempniewicz, L. 1993. The polar bear Ursus maritimus feeding in a seabird colony in Franz Josef Land. Polar Res. 12:3336.
  • Stirling, I., and W. R. Archibald. 1977. Aspects of predation of seals by polar bears. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34:11261129.
  • Stirling, I., and A. E. Derocher. 2012. Effects of climate warming on polar bears: a review of the evidence. Glob. Change Biol. 18:26942706.
  • Stirling, I., and N. A. Øritsland. 1995. Relationships between estimates of ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations in the Canadian Arctic. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52:25942612.
  • Stirling, I., and C. L. Parkinson. 2006. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic 59:261275.
  • Stirling, I., and J. E. Ross. 2011. Observations of cannibalism by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) on summer and autumn sea ice at Svalbard, Norway. Arctic 64:478482.
  • Stirling, I., E. Richardson, G. W. Thiemann, and A. E. Derocher. 2008. Unusual predation attempts of polar bears on ringed seals in the southern Beaufort Sea: possible significance of changing spring ice conditions. Arctic 61:1422.
  • Taylor, M., T. Larsen, and R. E. Schweinsburg. 1985. Observations of intraspecific aggression and cannibalism in polar bears. Arctic 38:303309.
  • Thiemann, G. W., S. J. Iverson, and I. Stirling. 2008. Polar bear diets and arctic marine food webs: insights from fatty acid analysis. Ecol. Monogr. 78:591613.
  • Weber, D. S., P. J. Van Coeverden De, E. Groot, M. D. Peacock, D. A. Schrenzel, S. Perez, et al. 2013. Low MHC variation in the polar bear: implications in the face of Arctic warming? Anim. Conserv. doi: 10.1111/acv.12045
  • Williams, T. M., and D. C. Heard. 1986. World status of wild Rangifer tarandus populations. Rangifer, Special Issue 1:1928.
  • Wolniewicz, R. 2001. Field guide to skulls and bones of mammals of the northeastern United States: volume 1 – Skulls and mandibles. Richard Wolniewicz, Magnolia, MA.
  • Wolniewicz, R. 2004. Field guide to skulls and bones of mammals of the northeastern United States: volume 2 - The long bones. Richard Wolniewicz, Magnolia, MA.
  • Zar, J. 1999. Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle.