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Table S1. The average content of soil and topographic variables and the standard deviations (in brackets) in the fenced and grazed plots of site 1 and site 2.

Table S2. Species composition in the 10 × 10 m plots of the fenced and grazed areas of two meadows. The cross indicates that the species was detected in the plot.

Figure S1. Changes in resource heterogeneity as a function of distance between sampling points in site 1. Each point represents the average coefficient of variation for all pairwise points measured at that distance, with filled circles representing the CV in grazed areas and open circles representing the CV in fenced plots. Labels above each panel indicate the soil resource in site 1.

Figure S2. Changes in resource heterogeneity as a function of distance between sampling points in site 2. Each point represents the average coefficient of variation for all pairwise points measured at that distance, with filled circles representing the CV in grazed areas and open circles representing the CV in fenced plots. Labels above each panel indicate the soil resource in site 2.

Figure S3. The examples of the intraspecific spatial patterns (univariate point process) of the three types of species (dominating, common and rare species) in the fenced and grazed plots. The solid lines are for the values of g function and the two dotted lines represent the upper and the lower limits of the 95% confidence envelopes of the 99 Monte Carlo simulations by randomly labeling all the aboveground-ramets in the plot while keeping the abundance of each species the same as observed.

Figure S4. The examples of the interspecific spatial pattern (bivariate point process) of three types of matched species pairs (dominating species vs. dominating species, dominating species vs. common species and dominating species vs. rare species) in the fenced and grazed plots. The solid lines are the pair-correlation functions and the two dotted lines represent the upper and the lower limits of the 95% confidence envelopes of the 99 Monte Carlo simulations respectively. Patterns of intraspecific association across spatial scales based on the function g12(r). Associations were considered significantly non-random if they fell outside the 95% confidence intervals of the null model (see Material and Methods).

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