Massive structural and compositional changes over two decades in forest fragments near Kampala, Uganda
Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ecology and Evolution
Volume 3, Issue 11, pages 3804–3823, October 2013
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(11): 3804–3823
- Issue published online: 9 OCT 2013
- Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 31 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Received: 25 JUN 2013
- Norwegian Research Council. Grant Number: 184912
- Makerere University-University of Bergen Collaboration
- 2004a. Forest fragmentation and primates survival status in non-reserved forests of the ‘Kampala area’, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 42:70–77.
- 2004b. Red-tail monkey groups in forest patches outside the protected area system in the ‘Kampala area’. Afr. J. Ecol. 42:78–83.
- 2009. The structure and status of forest fragments outside protected areas in Central Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 47:664–669. , , and .
- 2007. Quantifying the biodiversity value of tropical primary, secondary, and plantation forests. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 10:18555–18560. , , , , , , et al.
- 1995. Approaches to developing sustainable extraction systems for tropical forest products. Ecol. Appl. 5:896–903. , and .
- CBD. 2010. Outcomes of the global expert workshop on biodiversity benefits of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. UNEP/CBD/WS-REDD/1/3. Convention on Biological Diversity, Nairobi, Kenya.
- 2003. 2003 United Nations list of protected areas. IUCN, Gland, and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, U.K. , , , , and .
- 2012. Sustainability of an urban forest: Bukit Timah nature reserve, Singapore. in J. J. Diez, ed. Sustainable forest management-case studies. ISBN: 978-953-51-0511-4. InTech. Available at http://www.intechopen.com/books/sustainable-forest-management-case-studies/sustainabilityof-an-urban-forest-bukit-timah-nature-reserve-singapore. .
- 2006. EstimateS: statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 8.2. Available at: http://purl.oclc.org/estimates (accessed 20 May 2013). .
- 1996. Changes in tree species abundance in a neotropical forest over eight years: impact of climate change. J. Trop. Ecol. 12:231–256. , , and .
- 2000. Seedling dynamics over thirty-two years in a tropical rain forest tree. Ecology 81:568–584. , and .
- 1962. Working plan for Mpanga research forest. Uganda Forest Department, Kampala, Uganda. , and .
- 2008. Estimation of leaf area and clumping indexes of crops with hemispherical photographs. Agric. For. Meteorol. 148:644–655. , , , , and .
- 1995. Disturbance and diversity in tropical rainforests: the density effect. Ecol. Appl. 5:962–968.
- 2007. Developing terrestrial, multi-taxon indices of biological integrity: an example from coastal sage scrub. Biol. Conserv. 140:130–141. , , , , , , et al.
- 2011. Degraded lands worth protecting: the biological importance of South-east Asia's repeatedly logged forests. Proc. Biol. Sci. 278:82–90. , , , , , , et al.
- 1940. The indigenous trees of the Uganda protectorate. Government Printer, Entebbe, Uganda. .
- 1951. The indigenous trees of the Uganda protectorate. Government Printer, Entebbe, Uganda. , and .
- 1987. Compositional dissimilarity as a robust measure of ecological distance. Vegetatio 69:57–68. , , and .
- FAO. 2011. State of the world's forests 2011. Food and Agricultural Organisation (United Nations), Rome, Italy.
- 1994. The effect of human activity on the structure and composition of a tropical forest in Puerto Rico. For. Ecol. Manage. 63:57–78. , and .
- 2009. Three decades of deforestation in southwest Sumatra: effects of coffee prices, law enforcement and rural poverty. Biol. Conserv. 142:597–605. , , , , and .
- 1997. Indigenous technical knowledge and forest management: a case study of sacred groves (traditional forest reserves) in Mpigi district. UFRIC, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
- Google Earth 6.1. 2011. Kampala forest fragments 0°05′N -0°16′N and 32°30′E-2°38′E, Elevation 1200-1250 m. Available at http://www.google.com/earth/index.html (accessed 20 February 2012).
- 1981. A field guide to Uganda forest trees. Makerere Univ. Printery, Kampala, Uganda.
- 1982. The American Cassiinae: a synoptical revision of Leguminosae tribe Cassiinae in the New World. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 35:455–918. , and .
- IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2010.3. online IUCN Red List. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2011.1. Available at www.iucnredlist.org (accessed 17 October 2011).
- 2005. Sacred groves of Manipur, northeast India: biodiversity value, status and strategies for their conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 14:1541–1582. , , and .
- 1964. The Vegetation of Uganda and its bearing to land-use. Uganda Government Printer, Kampala, Uganda. , , and .
- 2009. Impacts of roads and linear clearings on tropical forests. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24:659–669. , , and .
- 2007. Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science. 317:1513–1516. , , , , , , et al.
- 2000. Tree population dynamics in Kibale National Park, Uganda 1975–1998. Afr. J. Ecol. 38:238–247. , , and .
- 1997. Relationships between landscape structure and tree species diversity in tropical forests of South-East Brazil. Landsc. Urban Plann. 37:29–35.
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
- 2001. The diversity in tropical rain forests: a validation of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Science 294:1702–1704. , and .
- 2006. Plant community structure in tropical rain forest fragments of the Western Ghats, India. Biotropica 38:143–160. , , and .
- National Environmental Management Authority. 2007. State of environment report for Uganda. NEMA, Kampala, Uganda.
- National Forestry Authority. 2008. Strategic action plan for the period 2008 ⁄ 9 to 2012 ⁄ 13 with priorities for the first five years. Government of Uganda, Kampala, Uganda.
- 2005. The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 30:219–252. , , and .
- 2009. Resilience of tropical rain forests: tree community reassembly in secondary forests. Ecol. Lett. 12:385–394. , , , , and .
- 2010. Status of forests in Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 48:853–859. , , and .
- 2012. Vegan: community ecology package. R package version 2.0-4. Available at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan (accessed 24 June 2013). , , , , , , et al.
- 2008. Effect of habitat area and isolation on fragmented animal populations. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105:20770–20775. , , , and .
- 2000. Land development pressure on peri-urban forests: a case study in the Regional Municipality of York. For. Chron. 76:247–250. , , and .
- R Core Team. 2012. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, Available at http://www.R-project.org/ (accessed 18 April 2013).
- 2011. Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest. PLoS ONE 6:e27785. , , , , , , et al.
- 2008. Global ecological forest classification and forest protected area gap analysis. Analyses and recommendations in view of the 10% target for forest protection under the convention on biological diversity (CBD). 2nd ed. Freiburg Univ. Press, Freiburg, Germany. , , , , , and , et al.
- 2001. Long-term observations of rain forest succession, tree diversity and responses to disturbance. Plant Ecol. 155:183–199.
- 2000. Long-term permanent plot observations of vegetation dynamics in Budongo, a Ugandan rain forest. J. Trop. Ecol. 16:865–882. , , and .
- 2009. The environmental and social history of African sacred groves: a Tanzanian case study. Afr. Stud. Rev. 52:73–98.
- 1992. Long-term monitoring of vegetation in a tropical deciduous forest in Mudumalai, southern India. Curr. Sci. 62:608–616. , , , , , , et al.
- 2008. Thirty-eight years of change in a tropical forest: plot data from Mpanga forest reserve, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 46:655–667. , , , and .
- The National Forestry and Tree Planting Act. 2003. Government of Uganda, Kampala.
- 2012. Usambara invasive plants. Available at http://tropical-biology.org/research/dip/species.htm (accessed on 11 October 2012). , , and .
- 1980. Comparison of forest structure and regeneration on Bench and Stewart Islands. N. Z. J. of Ecol. 3:50–68. , and .
- 2002. Possible control of Senna spectabilis (Caesalpiniaceae), an invasive tree in Mahale mountains National Park, Tanzania. Oryx 36:357–363. , and .
- 1996. An urban forestry strategy for Hong Kong. Arboric. J. 20:185–196.
- 1990. An introduction to tropical rainforests. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK.
- 2010. The future of tropical forests. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1195:1–27.
- 2011. An overview of invasive plants in Brazil. Braz. J. Bot. 34:431–446. , and .
- 1994. Response of tree species to hurricane winds in subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico: implications for tropical tree life histories. J. Ecol. 82:911–922. , , , , , and .