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Keywords:

  • Biodiversity;
  • biogeochemical;
  • ecosystem function;
  • functional group;
  • good environmental status;
  • Marine Strategy Framework Directive;
  • process;
  • trait

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Conflict of Interest
  9. References

Bioturbation, the biogenic modification of sediments through particle reworking and burrow ventilation, is a key mediator of many important geochemical processes in marine systems. In situ quantification of bioturbation can be achieved in a myriad of ways, requiring expert knowledge, technology, and resources not always available, and not feasible in some settings. Where dedicated research programmes do not exist, a practical alternative is the adoption of a trait-based approach to estimate community bioturbation potential (BPc). This index can be calculated from inventories of species, abundance and biomass data (routinely available for many systems), and a functional classification of organism traits associated with sediment mixing (less available). Presently, however, there is no agreed standard categorization for the reworking mode and mobility of benthic species. Based on information from the literature and expert opinion, we provide a functional classification for 1033 benthic invertebrate species from the northwest European continental shelf, as a tool to enable the standardized calculation of BPc in the region. Future uses of this classification table will increase the comparability and utility of large-scale assessments of ecosystem processes and functioning influenced by bioturbation (e.g., to support legislation). The key strengths, assumptions, and limitations of BPc as a metric are critically reviewed, offering guidelines for its calculation and application.


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Conflict of Interest
  9. References

Marine soft-sediment habitats represent some of the most functionally important ecosystems on Earth, being characterized by a high biomass and diversity of invertebrate organisms that are fundamental to the mediation of a wealth of goods and services (Lotze et al. 2006; White et al. 2010; Widdicombe and Somerfield 2012). Infaunal invertebrates exhibit significant influence over benthic sedimentary geochemical environments in soft sediments through bioturbation, that is, the mixing of sediment and particulate materials carried out during foraging, feeding and burrow maintenance activities, and the enhancement of pore water and solute advection during burrow ventilation (Richter 1936; Rhoads 1974; Volkenborn et al. 2010). These processes influence oxygen, pH and redox gradients (Stahl et al. 2006; Pischedda et al. 2008; Queirós et al. 2011), metal cycling (Teal et al. 2009), sediment granulometry (Montserrat et al. 2009), pollutant release (Gilbert et al. 1994), macrofauna diversity (Volkenborn et al. 2007), bacterial activity and composition (Mermillod-Blondin and Rosenberg 2006; Gilbertson et al. 2012), and ultimately carbon (Kristensen 2001) and nitrogen cycling (Bertics et al. 2010). Hence, in light of anticipated changes to marine systems associated with human activity (Halpern et al. 2008; Hoegh-Guldberg and Bruno 2010), large-scale assessments of bioturbation can contribute to a better understanding of how of ecosystem functioning is mediated by biological activity.

Community bioturbation potential (BPc) is a metric first described by Solan et al. (2004a), which combines abundance and biomass data with information about the life traits of individual species or taxonomic groups. This information describes modes of sediment reworking (Ri) and mobility (Mi) of taxa in a dataset, two traits known to regulate biological sediment mixing, a key component of bioturbation (Solan 2000; and refereces therein; Solan et al. 2004b). BPc is thus not a direct measure of the process of bioturbation. Rather, BPc provides an estimate of the potential of a community to bioturbate. Hence, where macrofauna abundance and biomass data are available, BPc provides a means to estimate the extent to which benthic communities are likely to affect important ecosystem properties that underpin ecosystem functioning. The consequences of environmentally driven changes in biodiversity to BPc, and its relation to ecosystem functioning, have been explored in this way in terrestrial (Bunker et al. 2005) and marine habitats (Solan et al. 2004a,b); at the local (Lohrer et al. 2010; Teal et al. 2013) and regional scales (Queirós et al. 2011; Birchenough et al. 2012; Solan et al. 2012); for different contexts (e.g., habitat structure and hypoxia, Queirós et al. 2011; Van Colen et al. 2012; Villnäs et al. 2012); and for a variety of ecosystem functions including productivity (Solan et al. 2012), nutrient cycling (Solan et al. 2004a), carbon storage (Bunker et al. 2005; Solan et al. 2012), and decomposition (Josefson et al. 2012). By calculating BPc over time, or for different locations or scenarios, changes in the efficiency of the organism-sediment couple can be monitored for compliance in support of management and policy objectives (Painting et al. 2012; Van Hoey et al. 2013). For example, the effects of simulated changes in benthic community structure have previously been used to explore possible changes in ecosystem properties like sediment organic carbon at the North Sea scale, based on empirically derived relationships between BPc and sediment organic carbon (Fig. 1). Similar uses of BPc could invaluably contribute to an increased understanding of the role of ecosystem structure in the sustenance of marine functioning and its resilience to human activities, an urgent need under current European legislation (Marine Strategy Framework Directive, 2008/56/EC).

image

Figure 1. Percentage of sediment organic carbon (circles, diameter scaled to %) at each of 109 sites sampled during the North sea benthos Survey conducted by the Benthos Ecology Working Group of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea in 1986 (left column, “100%”), and following the implementation of simulated trait based extinction scenarios (right column, “50%”). By combining measurements of ecosystem functions with information on relevant species traits (abundance, biomass, functional group and behaviour), empirically derived relationships between specific ecosystem functions and BPc can be derived. In this case, the relationship between BPc and sediment % of organic carbon. Species extinction scenarios can be simulated and the consequential changes in ecosystem functioning recalculated based on changes in community composition and/or structure following implementation of each scenario. In this example, the predicted levels of sediment organic carbon content are presented for a 50% reduction in species richness (right column, “50%”) following sequential local expiration of species ordered by the most abundant species within a site (top row), those with the largest biomass (second row from top), or by the most abundant species across the region (bottom row). The consequences for ecosystem functioning (here, sediment organic carbon content) following these ordered extinction scenarios contrast to a scenario where species are extirpated in a random order (third row from top). Implementing various trait-based extinction scenarios in this way provides insights on possible outcomes following, for example, changes in management or as a result of anthropogenic forcing. Modified from Solan et al. (2012).

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A significant obstacle in the widespread application of BPc, however, is the need for a standard classification scheme that is supported by the benthic research community. As a first step in fulfilling this research gap, we present the findings of the Study Group on Climate Related Benthic Processes in the North Sea, an expert group appointed by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES SGCBNS). We present the conclusions of a series of dedicated workshops tasked with deriving a functional classification of northwest European marine invertebrate species to facilitate the calculation of BPc in different regions of the North Atlantic.

Methods

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Conflict of Interest
  9. References

The classification of marine invertebrate infauna into bioturbation groups was carried out using 18 datasets compiled from northwest European waters (n = 1033 species). Following Swift (1993) and Solan et al. (2004a), each taxon (1) was scored on categorical scales that reflect increasing mobility (Mi) from 1 (living in a fixed tube) to 4 (free three dimensional movement via burrow system), and increasing sediment reworking (Ri) from 1 (epifauna that bioturbate at the sediment–water interface) to 5 (regenerators that excavate holes, transferring sediment at depth to the surface).

  • display math

Bi and Ai are the biomass and abundance of species/taxon i in a sample. Trait scores were derived from an extensive review of published material and expert knowledge (consensus of 12 authors), and details of the scoring system are provided below. Species for which no published information was available were scored based on descriptions of species behavior and information on closely related species at the nearest taxonomic level. As BPc captures information about sediment particle reworking, pelagic species and those living on hard substrates were not included. Sediment reworking functional types were also defined (Fti), according to François et al. (1997), Solan (2000), and Gérino et al. (2003). Taxonomic information and Aphia ID (a unique species database identifier) were extracted from the World Register of Marine Species (2012).

Results

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Conflict of Interest
  9. References

Table 1 provides the classifications for mobility (Mi) and sediment particle reworking (Ri) assigned to the 1033 marine invertebrate species (and other taxa) from northwest European waters, and the associated sediment reworking functional types (Fti). Please refer to the table for details of the scoring criteria.

Table 1. Bioturbation potential allocations for 1033 macrofaunal species. Mi and Ri are the reworking and mobility traits, and Fti is the corresponding sediment reworking functional types.
Scientific NameAphia IDRiMiFtiPhylumClassOrderFamily
  1. Mi scores: 1 for organisms that live in fixed tubes; 2 indicates limited movement; 3 indicates slow, free movement through the sediment matrix; 4 indicates free movement, that is, via burrow system. Ri scores: 1 for epifauna; 2 for surficial modifiers; 3 for upward and downward conveyors; 4 for biodiffusors; and 5 for regenerators. Reworking types (Fti): “S” for surficial modifiers; “B” for biodiffusors; “UC” and “DC” for upward and downward conveyors; and “R” for regenerators; and “E” for epifauna.

Grania36970243BAnnelidaClitellataEnchytraeidaCaenogastropoda
Tubificoides amplivasatus 13757043BAnnelidaClitellataHaplotaxidaTubificidae
Tubificoides insularis 13757843BAnnelidaClitellataHaplotaxidaTubificidae
Tubificoides pseudogaster 13758243BAnnelidaClitellataHaplotaxidaTubificidae
Oligochaeta203643BAnnelidaClitellata  
Cossura longocirrata 12998423SAnnelidaPolychaeta Cossuridae
Chirimia biceps 13027732UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Clymenura lankesteri 13028431UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Euclymene12934731UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Lumbriclymene12935031UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Nicomache12935731UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Rhodine12936331UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Ophelia borealis 13049143BAnnelidaPolychaeta Opheliidae
Ophelina cylindricaudata 46571443BAnnelidaPolychaeta Opheliidae
Ophelina modesta 13050743BAnnelidaPolychaeta Opheliidae
Ophelina norvegica 13050843BAnnelidaPolychaeta Opheliidae
Travisia forbesii 13051243BAnnelidaPolychaeta Opheliidae
Orbinia norvegica 15627843BAnnelidaPolychaeta Orbiniidae
Aricidea (Acmira) laubieri 32658723SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Aricidea (Allia) roberti 32659823SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Aricidea (Aricidea) wassi 32660523SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Aricidea simonae 13057023SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Aricidea suecica 13057223SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Cirrophorus armatus 15233923SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Paraonis fulgens 14693223SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Polygordius12947222SAnnelidaPolychaeta Polygordiidae
Protodriloides chaetifer 13083722SAnnelidaPolychaeta Protodriloididae
Polyphysia crassa 13097744BAnnelidaPolychaeta Scalibregmatidae
Paramphinome jeffreysii 12983743BAnnelidaPolychaetaAmphinomidaAmphinomidae
Pareurythoe borealis 12983843BAnnelidaPolychaetaAmphinomidaAmphinomidae
Euphrosine foliosa 13008323SAnnelidaPolychaetaAmphinomidaEuphrosinidae
Capitellida89032UCAnnelidaPolychaetaCapitellida 
Ophryotrocha12926643BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaDorvilleidae
Parougia caeca 13003643BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaDorvilleidae
Parougia eliasoni 13003743BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaDorvilleidae
Parougia nigridentata 13003943BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaDorvilleidae
Protodorvillea kefersteini 13004143BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaDorvilleidae
Schistomeringos12927443BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaDorvilleidae
Schistomeringos rudolphii 15412743BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaDorvilleidae
Eunice12927843BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaEunicidae
Eunice dubitata 13005543BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaEunicidae
Eunice pennata 13006043BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaEunicidae
Eunicidae96643BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaEunicidae
Lysidice ninetta 13007143BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaEunicidae
Marphysa12928143BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaEunicidae
Marphysa bellii 13007243BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaEunicidae
Nematonereis unicornis 59495743BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaEunicidae
Abyssoninoe12933143BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Abyssoninoe hibernica 14646943BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Lumbrineriopsis paradoxa 13023543BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Lumbrineris12933743BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Lumbrineris agastos 13023643BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Lumbrineris aniara 13023843BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Lumbrineris fragilis 15228543BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Lumbrineris gracilis 13024443BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Lumbrineris latreilli 13024843BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Lumbrineris magnidentata 15536043BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Ninoe armoricana 13025443BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Scoletoma12934043BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Scoletoma impatiens 13026343BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaLumbrineridae
Arabella12919943BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaOenonidae
Arabella iricolor 12985443BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaOenonidae
Drilonereis12920043BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaOenonidae
Drilonereis filum 12985643BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaOenonidae
Hyalinoecia tubicola 13046423SAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaOnuphidae
Nothria conchylega 13046723SAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaOnuphidae
Nothria hyperborea 18150023SAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaOnuphidae
Onuphis12940423SAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaOnuphidae
Paradiopatra /quadricuspis 13048023SAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicidaOnuphidae
Eunicida89543BAnnelidaPolychaetaEunicida 
Eupanthalis kinbergi 12973543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaAcoetidae
Aphrodita aculeata 12984043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaAphroditidae
Aphroditidae93843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaAphroditidae
Glycera12929643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glycera alba 13011643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glycera celtica 13011943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glycera fallax 33690843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glycera gigantea 13012243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glycera lapidum 13012343BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glycera oxycephala 13012643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glycera rouxii 13012743BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glycera tesselata 13012843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glycera tridactyla 13013043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glycera unicornis 13013143BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glyceridae95243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGlyceridae
Glycinde nordmanni 13013643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGoniadidae
Goniada12930043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGoniadidae
Goniada maculata 13014043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGoniadidae
Goniadella12930143BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGoniadidae
Goniadella gracilis 13014543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaGoniadidae
Gyptis12930743BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaHesionidae
Hesionidae94643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaHesionidae
Kefersteinia cirrata 13016443BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaHesionidae
Microphthalmus12931323SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaHesionidae
Microphthalmus similis 13017623SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaHesionidae
Nereimyra punctata 13018543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaHesionidae
Oxydromus agilis 71068343BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaHesionidae
Oxydromus flexuosus 71068043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaHesionidae
Podarkeopsis capensis 13019543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaHesionidae
Psamathe fusca 15224943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaHesionidae
Syllidia armata 13019843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaHesionidae
Aglaophamus agilis 13034343BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nephtyidae95643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nephtys12937043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nephtys assimilis 13035343BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nephtys caeca 13035543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nephtys cirrosa 13035743BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nephtys hombergii 13035943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nephtys hystricis 13036043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nephtys incisa 13036243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nephtys kersivalensis 13036343BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nephtys longosetosa 13036443BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nephtys paradoxa 13036543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNephtyidae
Nereididae2249644BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereidae
Alitta succinea 23485044BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Ceratocephale loveni 13036743BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Eunereis elittoralis 13037444BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Eunereis longissima 13037544BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Hediste diversicolor 15230244BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Micronereis variegata 13038044BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Neanthes fucata 13038744BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Neanthes irrorata 13038944BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Nereis12937944BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Nereis pelagica 13040444BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Nereis zonata13040744BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Websterinereis glauca 13042644BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaNereididae
Paralacydonia paradoxa 13054522SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaParalacydoniidae
Pholoe12943922SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPholoidae
Pholoe assimilis 13059822SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPholoidae
Pholoe baltica 13059922SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPholoidae
Pholoe inornata 13060122SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPholoidae
Pholoe minuta 13060322SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPholoidae
Pholoe pallida 13060422SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPholoidae
Chaetoparia nilssoni 13061043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Eteone12944343BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Eteone barbata 23187043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Eteone flava 13061343BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Eteone foliosa 13061443BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Eteone longa 13061643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Eulalia12944543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Eulalia mustela 13063143BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Eulalia viridis 13063943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Eumida12944643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Eumida bahusiensis 13064143BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Eumida sanguinea 13064443BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Hesionura elongata 13064943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Hypereteone foliosa 15225043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Mysta picta 14702643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Nereiphylla rubiginosa 13065943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Paranaitis kosteriensis 13066243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Phyllodoce12945543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Phyllodoce (Anaitides) groenlandica 13066843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Phyllodoce groenlandica 33450643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Phyllodoce laminosa 13067043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Phyllodoce lineata 33450843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Phyllodoce longipes 13067343BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Phyllodoce maculata 33451043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Phyllodoce mucosa 33451243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Phyllodoce rosea 33451443BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Phyllodocidae93143BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Pirakia punctifera 14710443BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Pseudomystides limbata 13068343BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Sige fusigera 13069043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPhyllodocidae
Ancistargis hamata 13069243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPilargidae
Ancistrosyllis groenlandica 13069543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPilargidae
Glyphohesione klatti 13069643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPilargidae
Pilargis verrucosa 13070043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPilargidae
Sigambra parva 13070243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPilargidae
Pisione remota 13070743BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPisionidae
Acholoe squamosa 14647443BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Alentia gelatinosa 13072243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Enipo elisabethae 13073743BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Enipo kinbergi 13073843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Enipo kinbergi 13073843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Eunoe nodosa 13074543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Gattyana amondseni 13074843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Gattyana cirrhosa 13074943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Harmothoe12949143BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Harmothoe extenuata 13076243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Harmothoe fraserthomsoni 13076443BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Harmothoe glabra 57183243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Harmothoe impar 13077043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Lepidonotus squamatus 13080111EAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Malmgrenia14700643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Malmgrenia andreapolis 14700843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Malmgreniella12949943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Malmgreniella arenicolae 13081043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Malmgreniella castanea 13081143BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Malmgreniella darbouxi 13081243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Malmgreniella lilianae 13081443BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Malmgreniella ljungmani 13081543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Malmgreniella lunulata 13081643BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Malmgreniella mcintoshi 13081843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Malmgreniella polypapillata 23671243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Polynoidae93943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Polynoinae15509143BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaPolynoidae
Labioleanira yhleni 13106743BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSigalionidae
Neoleanira tetragona 13106943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSigalionidae
Sigalion mathildae 13107243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSigalionidae
Sigalionidae94343BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSigalionidae
Sthenelais12959543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSigalionidae
Sthenelais boa 13107443BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSigalionidae
Sthenelais limicola 13107743BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSigalionidae
Ephesiella abyssorum 13108143BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSphaerodoridae
Sphaerodorum gracilis 13110043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSphaerodoridae
Erinaceusyllis erinaceus 19595323SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Eurysyllis tuberculata 13128843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Eusyllis assimilis 13128943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Eusyllis blomstrandi 13129043BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Exogone (Exogone) naidina 13130443BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Exogone (Exogone) verugera 13130743BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Exogone (Parexogone) hebes 13130243BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Myrianida12965922SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Myrianida prolifera 23820022SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Odontosyllis ctenostoma 13132543BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Odontosyllis gibba 13132843BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Pionosyllis12966943BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Proceraea12967122SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Prosphaerosyllis tetralix 19598023SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Sphaerosyllis bulbosa 13137923SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Sphaerosyllis hystrix 13138823SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Sphaerosyllis taylori 13139423SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Streptodonta pterochaeta 23820743BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Streptosyllis websteri 13140223SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Syllidae94823SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Syllides benedicti 13140523SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Syllis12968023SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Syllis armillaris 13141523SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Syllis cornuta 15758343BAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Syllis gracilis 13143523SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Syllis hyalina 13143623SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Syllis prolifera 13145223SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Trypanosyllis (Trypanosyllis) coeliaca 33515123SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Trypanosyllis zebra 13146723SAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaSyllidae
Tomopteris (Johnstonella) helgolandica 33494612EAnnelidaPolychaetaPhyllodocidaTomopteridae
Galathowenia oculata 14695021SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaOweniidae
Myriochele12942621SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaOweniidae
Myriochele heeri 13054221SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaOweniidae
Owenia fusiformis 13054421SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaOweniidae
Oweniidae97521SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaOweniidae
Sabellaria spinulosa 13086711EAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellariidae
Sabellariidae97911EAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellariidae
Branchiomma bombyx 13087822SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Chone12952521SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Chone acustica 13088521SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Chone duneri 13088821SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Euchone12952821SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Euchone rubrocincta 13090921SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Euchone southerni 13091021SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Jasmineira candela 13091921SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Jasmineira caudata 13092021SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Jasmineira elegans 13092121SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Paradialychone filicaudata 55874321SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Potamethus murrayi 41650821SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Potamilla reniformis 15538921SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Pseudopotamilla reniformis 13096321SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Sabella pavonina 13096721SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Sabellidae98521SAnnelidaPolychaetaSabellidaSabellidae
Apistobranchus12919823SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaApistobranchidae
Apistobranchus tenuis 12985023SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaApistobranchidae
Apistobranchus tullbergi 12985123SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaApistobranchidae
Chaetopteridae91831UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaChaetopteridae
Chaetopterus variopedatus 12991431UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaChaetopteridae
Spiochaetopterus costarum 12992231UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaChaetopteridae
Spiochaetopterus typicus 12992431UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaChaetopteridae
Magelona12934122SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaMagelonidae
Magelona alleni 13026621SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaMagelonidae
Magelona filiformis 13026822SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaMagelonidae
Magelona johnstoni 13026922SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaMagelonidae
Magelona minuta 13027022SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaMagelonidae
Magelona mirabilis 13027122SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaMagelonidae
Magelonidae91422SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaMagelonidae
Poecilochaetidae91622SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaPoecilochaetidae
Poecilochaetus serpens 13071122SAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaPoecilochaetidae
Aonides12960532UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Aonides oxycephala 13110632UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Aonides paucibranchiata 13110732UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Aurospio banyulensis 14653232UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Dipolydora caulleryi 13111643BAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Dipolydora coeca 13111731UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Dipolydora socialis 13112443BAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Laonice12961331UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Laonice bahusiensis 13112731UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Laonice cirrata 13112831UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Laonice sarsi 13112931UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Malacoceros fuliginosus 13113132UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Microspio atlantica 13113732UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Minuspio cirrifera 15239232UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Paraprionospio pinnata 13114032UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Paraspio decorata 33439732UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Polydora12961931UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Polydora ciliata 13114131UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Polydora cornuta 13114331UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Prionospio12962032UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Prionospio caspersi 13115232UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Prionospio cirrifera 13115332UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Prionospio dubia 13115532UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Prionospio ehlersi 13115632UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Prionospio fallax 13115732UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Prionospio malmgreni 13115932UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Prionospio multibranchiata 13116032UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Prionospio saldanha 33854032UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Prionospio sexoculata 13116332UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Prionospio steenstrupi 13116432UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Pseudopolydora antennata 13116631UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata 13116831UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Pseudopolydora pulchra 13116931UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Pygospio elegans 13117031UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Scolelepis12962332UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Scolelepis (Scolelepis) foliosa 33474132UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata 15756632UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Scolelepis bonnieri 13117132UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Scolelepis korsuni 13117432UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Scolelepis tridentata 13117832UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Spio12962532UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Spio armata 13118032UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Spio filicornis 13118332UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Spio goniocephala 13118432UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Spio martinensis 13118532UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Spio multioculata 13118632UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Spionidae91332UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Spiophanes12962631UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Spiophanes bombyx 13118731UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Spiophanes kroyeri 13118831UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Spiophanes wigleyi 13119031UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Streblospio benedicti 13119132UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaSpionidaSpionidae
Macrochaeta clavicornis 12974522SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAcrocirridae
Macrochaeta helgolandica 12974622SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAcrocirridae
Ampharete12915532UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Ampharete acutifrons 12977532UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Ampharete baltica 12977632UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Ampharete falcata 12977732UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Ampharete finmarchica 12977832UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Ampharete grubei 15227232UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Ampharetidae98132UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Amphicteis gunneri 12978432UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Amphicteis midas 12978532UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Amythasides macroglossus 12978832UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Anobothrus gracilis 12978931UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Melinna cristata 12980431UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Melinna elisabethae 12980531UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Melinna palmata 12980831UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Mugga wahrbergi 12981332UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Pterolysippe vanelli 33469231UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Samytha sexcirrata 12981932UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Sosane sulcata 12982132UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaAmpharetidae
Aphelochaeta12924022SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Aphelochaeta filiformis 12993722SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Aphelochaeta marioni 12993822SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Caulleriella12924122SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Caulleriella alata 12994322SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Caulleriella bioculata 12994422SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Caulleriella killariensis 12994522SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Caulleriella zetlandica 12994822SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Caulleriella zetlandica 12994822SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Chaetozone12924222SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Chaetozone christiei 15221722SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Chaetozone gibber 12995322SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Chaetozone setosa 12995522SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Cirratulidae91922SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Cirratulus12924322SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Cirratulus caudatus 12995722SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Cirriformia tentaculata 12996422SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Monticellina dorsobranchialis 12997222SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Monticellina heterochaeta 12997322SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Tharyx12924922SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaCirratulidae
Fauveliopsis12928822SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaFauveliopsidae
Brada villosa 13009932UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaFlabelligeridae
Diplocirrus glaucus 13010032UCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaFlabelligeridae
Flabelligeridae97632UCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaFlabelligeridae
Pherusa monilifera 13011232UCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaFlabelligeridae
Pherusa plumosa 13011332UCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaFlabelligeridae
Amphictene auricoma 15244831UCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaPectinariidae
Lagis koreni 15236731UCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaPectinariidae
Pectinaria12943731UCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaPectinariidae
Pectinaria (Amphictene) auricoma 13059031UCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaPectinariidae
Pectinariidae98031UCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaPectinariidae
Sternaspis scutata 13124243BAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaSternaspidae
Amaeana trilobata 13147131UC/DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Axionice maculata 13148431DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Eupolymnia nesidensis 13149011EAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Hauchiella tribullata 15238931DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Lanice12969731DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Lanice conchilega 13149531DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Lysilla loveni 13150031DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Neoamphitrite affinis 13150231DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Nicolea zostericola 13150831DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Paramphitrite birulai 15245422SAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Phisidia aurea 13151331DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Pista cristata 13151631DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Pista lornensis 15497231DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Pistella lornensis 13152231DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Polycirrus12971031DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Polycirrus medusa 13153131DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Streblosoma bairdi 13153831DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Streblosoma intestinale 13154031DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Terebella12971331DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Terebellidae98231DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Thelepus cincinnatus 13154331DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Thelepus setosus 13154431DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTerebellidae
Terebellides stroemii 13157331DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTrichobranchidae
Trichobranchidae 98331DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTrichobranchidae
Trichobranchus glacialis 13157431DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTrichobranchidae
Trichobranchus roseus 13157531DCAnnelidaPolychaetaTerebellidaTrichobranchidae
Arenicolides12920732UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Arenicolidae
Capitella12921132UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Capitellidae
Capitella capitata 12987632UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Capitellidae
Capitella minima 12987932UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Capitellidae
Capitellidae92132UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Capitellidae
Heteromastus filiformis 12988432UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Capitellidae
Mediomastus fragilis 12989232UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Capitellidae
Notomastus12922032UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Capitellidae
Notomastus latericeus 12989832UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Capitellidae
Peresiella clymenoides 12990632UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Capitellidae
Pseudoleiocapitella 12922632UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Capitellidae
Cossuridae90823SAnnelidaPolychaeta Cossuridae
Asychis biceps 14652331UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Clymenella torquata 13027931UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Clymenura12934631UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Euclymene droebachiensis 13029131UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Euclymene lombricoides 20989931UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Euclymene oerstedi 13029431UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Heteroclymene robusta 14697831UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Johnstonia clymenoides 13029831UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Macroclymene santandarensis 13030131UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Maldanidae92331UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Notoproctus12935831UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Praxillella affinis 13032231UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Praxillella gracilis 13032431UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Rhodine gracilior 13033031UCAnnelidaPolychaeta Maldanidae
Euzonus flabelligerus 13048743BAnnelidaPolychaeta Opheliidae
Ophelia limacina 13049443BAnnelidaPolychaeta Opheliidae
Opheliidae92443BAnnelidaPolychaeta Opheliidae
Ophelina acuminata 13050043BAnnelidaPolychaeta Opheliidae
Polyophthalmus pictus 13051043BAnnelidaPolychaeta Opheliidae
Orbinia (Orbinia) sertulata 33431043BAnnelidaPolychaeta Orbiniidae
Orbiniidae90243BAnnelidaPolychaeta Orbiniidae
Scoloplos12942543BAnnelidaPolychaeta Orbiniidae
Scoloplos (Scoloplos) armiger 33477243BAnnelidaPolychaeta Orbiniidae
Aedicira mediterranea 13054623SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Aricidea12943023SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Aricidea (Acmira) catherinae 33303423SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Aricidea (Acmira) cerrutii 52549723SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Aricidea (Acmira) lopezi 33303623SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Aricidea minuta 13056423SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Cirrophorus branchiatus 13057623SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Levinsenia gracilis 13057823SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Paradoneis lyra 13058523SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Paraonidae90323SAnnelidaPolychaeta Paraonidae
Polygordius appendiculatus 13071222SAnnelidaPolychaeta Polygordiidae
Polygordius lacteus 13071422SAnnelidaPolychaeta Polygordiidae
Protodriloides12951322SAnnelidaPolychaeta Protodriloididae
Asclerocheilus intermedius 13097444BAnnelidaPolychaeta Scalibregmatidae
Scalibregma celticum 13097944BAnnelidaPolychaeta Scalibregmatidae
Scalibregma inflatum 13098044BAnnelidaPolychaeta Scalibregmatidae
Scalibregmatidae92544BAnnelidaPolychaeta Scalibregmatidae
Acidostoma10158623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAcidostomatidae
Ampelisca10144521SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Ampelisca armoricana 10188821SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Ampelisca brevicornis 10189121SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Ampelisca diadema 10189621SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Ampelisca gibba 10189821SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Ampelisca macrocephala 10190821SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Ampelisca sarsi 10192321SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Ampelisca spinipes 10192821SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Ampelisca tenuicornis 10193021SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Ampelisca typica 10193321SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Ampelisca vervecei 10193721SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Byblis10144624SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Haploops tubicola 10195821SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpeliscidae
Amphilochoides boecki 10196023BArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmphilochidae
Amphilochoides serratipes 10196323BArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmphilochidae
Amphilochus manudens 10196723BArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmphilochidae
Amphilochus neapolitanus 10196823BArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmphilochidae
Gitana sarsi 10197723BArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmphilochidae
Paramphilochoides odontonyx 10198223BArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmphilochidae
Ampithoe ramondi 10200011EArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAmpithoidae
Aora gracilis 10201213SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAoridae
Aora typica 14689513SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAoridae
Aoridae10136813SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAoridae
Autonoe longipes 10202113SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAoridae
Microdeutopus10147113SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAoridae
Argissa hamatipes 10206423SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaArgissidae
Atylus10149723SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAtylidae
Atylus guttatus 10212723SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAtylidae
Atylus swammerdami 10213123SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAtylidae
Atylus vedlomensis 10213223SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAtylidae
Nototropis falcatus 10213923SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaAtylidae
Apherusa10150923SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCalliopiidae
Apherusa bispinosa 10216023SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCalliopiidae
Apherusa clevei 10216423SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCalliopiidae
Apherusa jurinei 10216823SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCalliopiidae
Apherusa ovalipes 10217223SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCalliopiidae
Caprella acanthifera 10182222SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCaprellidae
Caprella linearis 10183922SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCaprellidae
Pariambus typicus 10185722SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCaprellidae
Parvipalpus capillaceus 10185822SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCaprellidae
Phtisica marina 10186422SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCaprellidae
Pseudoprotella phasma 10187122SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCaprellidae
Cheirocratus10166923SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCheirocratidae
Cheirocratus intermedius 10279523SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCheirocratidae
Cheirocratus sundevalli 10279823SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCheirocratidae
Apocorophium lacustre 14859424SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Corophium10148924SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Crassicorophium bonellii 23700424SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Leptocheirus10147024SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Leptocheirus hirsutimanus 10203624SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Leptocheirus mariae 10203824SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Leptocheirus pectinatus 10203924SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Leptocheirus tricristatus 10204124SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Medicorophium affine 42350724SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Monocorophium acherusicum 22581424SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Monocorophium insidiosum 14859224SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Monocorophium sextonae 14860324SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Protomedeia10157424SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCorophiidae
Peltocoxa brevirostris 10198323SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaCyproideidae
Dexamine10149823SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaDexaminidae
Dexamine spinosa 10213523SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaDexaminidae
Guernea (Guernea) coalita 10213723SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaDexaminidae
Tritaeta gibbosa 10214123SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaDexaminidae
Dyopedos10173623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaDulichiidae
Dyopedos monacantha 10304223SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaDulichiidae
Eusirus longipes 10220223SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaEusiridae
Haustorius arenarius 10231723SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaHaustoriidae
Hyperia galba 10325123SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaHyperiidae
Iphimedia10155423SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaIphimediidae
Iphimedia minuta 10234523SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaIphimediidae
Iphimedia obesa 10234723SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaIphimediidae
Ericthonius punctatus 10240821SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaIschyroceridae
Jassa falcata 10243111EArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaIschyroceridae
Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) kroyeranus 10211121SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaIschyroceridae
Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) neapolitanus 10211221SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaIschyroceridae
Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) striatus 10211511SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaIschyroceridae
Leucothoe incisa 10246023SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLeucothoidae
Leucothoe lilljeborgi 10246223SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLeucothoidae
Leucothoe richiardii 21278423SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLeucothoidae
Leucothoe spinicarpa 10247023SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLeucothoidae
Liljeborgia10158223SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLiljeborgiidae
Liljeborgia kinahani 10248323SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLiljeborgiidae
Liljeborgia pallida 10248523SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLiljeborgiidae
Liljeborgia psaltrica 10248623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLiljeborgiidae
Listriella mollis 10248823SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLiljeborgiidae
Hippomedon bidentatus 10256923SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae
Hippomedon denticulatus 10257023SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae
Hippomedon massiliensis 10257623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae
Lepidepecreum longicornis 10259923SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae
Lysianassidae10139523SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae
Orchomene humilis 10266523SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae
Orchomenella nana 10269123SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae
Tryphosella sarsi 10277123SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae
Tryphosella simillima 10277323SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae
Tryphosites longipes 10277923SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae
Acidostoma nodiferum 10249623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae s.l.
Acidostoma obesum 10249723SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaLysianassidae s.l.
Animoceradocus semiserratus 53136423SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMaeridae
Maera10167523SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMaeridae
Maera grossimana 10281523SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMaeridae
Maera loveni 10282023SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMaeridae
Maera schmidti 10282623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMaeridae
Othomaera othonis 53478123SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMaeridae
Megaluropus agilis 10278323SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMegaluropidae
Abludomelita obtusata 10278822SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMelitidae
Eriopisa elongata 10280722SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMelitidae
Maerella tenuimana 10283122SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMelitidae
Microprotopus10156123SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMicroprotopidae
Microprotopus maculatus 10238023SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaMicroprotopidae
Odius carinatus 10286113EArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaOdiidae
Deflexilodes acutipes 23653823SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaOedicerotidae
Deflexilodes gibbosus 23653923SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaOedicerotidae
Monoculodes carinatus 10288223SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaOedicerotidae
Perioculodes longimanus 10291523SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaOedicerotidae
Pontocrates altamarinus 10291623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaOedicerotidae
Pontocrates arenarius 10291823SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaOedicerotidae
Synchelidium haplocheles 10292422SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaOedicerotidae
Synchelidium maculatum 10292822SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaOedicerotidae
Westwoodilla caecula 10293223BArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaOedicerotidae
Westwoodilla rectirostris 10293723BArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaOedicerotidae
Gammaropsis cornuta 14854522SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhotidae
Gammaropsis maculata 10236422SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhotidae
Gammaropsis nitida 10236712SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhotidae
Gammaropsis palmata 10236922SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhotidae
Gammaropsis sophiae 10237122SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhotidae
Megamphopus cornutus 10237723SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhotidae
Photis longicaudata 10238321SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhotidae
Photis reinhardi 10238721SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhotidae
Harpinia10171623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Harpinia agna 10295723SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Harpinia ala 10295823SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Harpinia antennaria 10296023SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Harpinia crenulata 10296323SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Harpinia dellavallei 10296623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Harpinia pectinata 10297223SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Harpinia plumosa 10297323SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Metaphoxus10172023SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Metaphoxus pectinatus 10298323SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Parametaphoxus tulearensis 54907923SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Phoxocephalus holbolli 10298923SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPhoxocephalidae
Pleustidae10140423SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPleustidae
Bathyporeia10174223SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPontoporeiidae
Bathyporeia elegans 10305823SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPontoporeiidae
Bathyporeia guilliamsoniana 10306023SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPontoporeiidae
Bathyporeia nana 10306423SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPontoporeiidae
Bathyporeia pelagica 10306623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPontoporeiidae
Bathyporeia pilosa 10306823SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPontoporeiidae
Bathyporeia sarsi 10307323SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPontoporeiidae
Bathyporeia tenuipes 10307623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaPontoporeiidae
Scopelocheirus hopei 10272023SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaScopelocheiridae
Stegocephaloides christianiensis 10310223SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaStegocephalidae
Metopa10176423SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaStenothoidae
Metopa alderi 10311623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaStenothoidae
Metopa latimana 10312523SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaStenothoidae
Stenothoe marina 10316623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaStenothoidae
Austrosyrrhoe fimbriatus 10317923SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaSynopiidae
Unciola crenatipalma 10205723BArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaUnciolidae
Unciola planipes 10206123BArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaUnciolidae
Tmetonyx cicada 10273621BArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaUristidae
Urothoe10178923SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaUrothoidae
Urothoe brevicornis 10322623SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaUrothoidae
Urothoe elegans 10322823SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaUrothoidae
Urothoe marina 10323323SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaUrothoidae
Urothoe poseidonis 10323523SArthropodaMalacostracaAmphipodaUrothoidae
Bodotria scorpioides 11044523SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaBodotriidae
Iphinoe11039123SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaBodotriidae
Iphinoe serrata 11046023SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaBodotriidae
Iphinoe tenella 11046123SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaBodotriidae
Iphinoe trispinosa 11046223SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaBodotriidae
Diastylidae11038023SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaDiastylidae
Diastylis11039823SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaDiastylidae
Diastylis bradyi 11047223SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaDiastylidae
Diastylis cornuta 11047423SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaDiastylidae
Diastylis laevis 11048123SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaDiastylidae
Diastylis lucifera 11048323SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaDiastylidae
Diastylis neapolitana 11048423SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaDiastylidae
Diastylis rathkei 11048723SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaDiastylidae
Diastylis rugosa 11048823SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaDiastylidae
Diastyloides biplicatus 11049422SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaDiastylidae
Hemilamprops roseus 11051423SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaLampropidae
Lamprops fasciatus 11051623SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaLampropidae
Eudorella emarginata 11052423SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaLeuconidae
Eudorella truncatula 11053523SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaLeuconidae
Eudorellopsis deformis 11053623SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaLeuconidae
Leucon (Leucon) nasica 11061823SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaLeuconidae
Cumella (Cumella) pygmaea 11056723SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaNannastacidae
Nannastacus unguiculatus 11057423SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaNannastacidae
Monopseudocuma gilsoni 42291623SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaPseudocumatidae
Pseudocuma11042723SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaPseudocumatidae
Pseudocuma (Pseudocuma) longicorne 11062723SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaPseudocumatidae
Pseudocuma (Pseudocuma) simile 11062823SArthropodaMalacostracaCumaceaPseudocumatidae
Alpheus glaber 10747744BArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaAlpheidae
Athanas nitescens 10748622SArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaAlpheidae
Aristaeomorpha foliacea 15832614EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaAristeidae
Atelecyclus rotundatus 10727354RArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaAtelecyclidae
Calocaris macandreae 10772644BArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaAxiidae
Callianassa10707244BArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaCallianassidae
Callianassa subterranea 10772944BArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaCallianassidae
Callianassidae10680044BArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaCallianassidae
Pestarella tyrrhena 23802744BArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaCallianassidae
Corystes cassivelaunus 10727754RArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaCorystidae
Crangon10700724SArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaCrangonidae
Crangon allmanni 10755124SArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaCrangonidae
Crangon crangon 10755224SArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaCrangonidae
Crangonidae10678224SArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaCrangonidae
Philocheras bispinosus bispinosus 10820724SArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaCrangonidae
Philocheras trispinosus 10756224SArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaCrangonidae
Diogenes pugilator 10719914EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaDiogenidae
Galathea10683443BArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaGalatheidae
Galathea dispersa 10714843BArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaGalatheidae
Galathea intermedia 10715043BArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaGalatheidae
Eualus cranchii 15608324SArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaHippolytidae
Inachus10690513EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaInachidae
Inachus dorsettensis 10732713EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaInachidae
Macropodia20507713EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaInachidae
Macropodia deflexa 10733813EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaInachidae
Macropodia rostrata 10734513EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaInachidae
Jaxea nocturna 10773744BArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaLaomediidae
Ebalia10688913EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaLeucosiidae
Ebalia cranchii 10729413EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaLeucosiidae
Ebalia granulosa 10729813EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaLeucosiidae
Ebalia tuberosa 10730113EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaLeucosiidae
Nephrops norvegicus 10725444BArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaNephropidae
Anapagurus10684914EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPaguridae
Anapagurus bicorniger 10721314EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPaguridae
Anapagurus laevis 10721814EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPaguridae
Paguridae10673814EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPaguridae
Pagurus10685414EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPaguridae
Pagurus bernhardus 10723214EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPaguridae
Pagurus cuanensis 10723514EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPaguridae
Palaemon elegans 10761414EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPalaemonidae
Pandalus montagui 10765114EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPandalidae
Pilumnus hirtellus 10741823SArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPilumnidae
Liocarcinus10692554RArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPolybiidae
Liocarcinus depurator 10738754RArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPolybiidae
Liocarcinus holsatus 10738854RArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPolybiidae
Liocarcinus marmoreus 10739054RArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPolybiidae
Liocarcinus navigator 10739254RArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPolybiidae
Liocarcinus pusillus 10739354RArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPolybiidae
Pisidia longicornis 10718813EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPorcellanidae
Carcinus maenas 10738154RArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaPortunidae
Processa10705414EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaProcessidae
Processa acutirostris 10768114EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaProcessidae
Processa canaliculata 10768214EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaProcessidae
Processa elegantula 10768414EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaProcessidae
Processa modica modica 10834314EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaProcessidae
Processa nouveli holthuisi 10834414EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaProcessidae
Solenocera membranacea 10712014EArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaSolenoceridae
Thia scutellata 10728124SArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaThiidae
Upogebia deltaura 10773934DCArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaUpogebiidae
Upogebia pusilla 10774134DCArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaUpogebiidae
Upogebia stellata 10774234DCArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaUpogebiidae
Upogebiidae10680334DCArthropodaMalacostracaDecapodaUpogebiidae
Anthura gracilis 11846722SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaAnthuridae
Astacilla longicornis 11902443BArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaArcturidae
Cirolana cranchi 11883923SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaCirolanidae
Conilera cylindracea 11884212EArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaCirolanidae
Eurydice pulchra 11885223SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaCirolanidae
Eurydice spinigera 14863723SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaCirolanidae
Natatolana borealis 11885923SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaCirolanidae
Gnathia maxillaris 11899423SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaGnathiidae
Gnathia oxyuraea 11899523SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaGnathiidae
Gnathiidae 11827823SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaGnathiidae
Paragnathia formica 11900123SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaGnathiidae
Idotea11845423SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaIdoteidae
Janira maculosa 11873223SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaJaniridae
Sphaeroma serratum 11897323SArthropodaMalacostracaIsopodaSphaeromatidae
Gastrosaccus spinifer 12002023SArthropodaMalacostracaMysidaMysidae
Haplostylus normani 14869811EArthropodaMalacostracaMysidaMysidae
Nebalia bipes 14703213EArthropodaMalacostracaNebaliaceaNebaliidae
Apseudes spinosus 13628422SArthropodaMalacostracaTanaidaceaApseudidae
Apseudes talpa 13628522SArthropodaMalacostracaTanaidaceaApseudidae
Apseudopsis latreillii 24707722SArthropodaMalacostracaTanaidaceaApseudidae
Akanthophoreus gracilis 13634022SArthropodaMalacostracaTanaidaceaLeptognathiidae
Pseudoparatanais batei 13645722SArthropodaMalacostracaTanaidaceaParatanaoidea incertae sedis
Tanaopsis graciloides 13645822SArthropodaMalacostracaTanaidaceaParatanaoidea incertae sedis
Pseudosphyrapus anomalus 13631922SArthropodaMalacostracaTanaidaceaSphyrapidae
Tanaissus lilljeborgi 13648622SArthropodaMalacostracaTanaidaceaTanaissuidae
Stomatopoda1435544BArthropodaMalacostraca  
Longipedia coronata 11636823SArthropodaMaxillopodaHarpacticoidaLongipediidae
Cylindroleberis mariae 23870823SArthropodaOstracodaMyodocopidaCylindroleberididae
Philomedes (Philomedes) lilljeborgi 12846024SArthropodaOstracodaMyodocopidaPhilomedidae
Philomedes brenda 12771823SArthropodaOstracodaMyodocopidaPhilomedidae
Myodocopida210423SArthropodaOstracodaMyodocopida 
Achelia echinata 13459922SArthropodaPycnogonidaPantopodaAmmotheidae
Callipallene brevirostris 13464311EArthropodaPycnogonidaPantopodaCallipallenidae
Nymphon brevirostre 15052011SArthropodaPycnogonidaPantopodaNymphonidae
Anoplodactylus13459214EArthropodaPycnogonidaPantopodaPhoxichilidiidae
Anoplodactylus petiolatus 13472314EArthropodaPycnogonidaPantopodaPhoxichilidiidae
Anoplodactylus virescens 13473014EArthropodaPycnogonidaPantopodaPhoxichilidiidae
Pycnogonida130214EArthropodaPycnogonida  
Priapulus caudatus 10116042BCephalorhynchaPriapulida Priapulidae
Ascidiella aspersa 10371811EChordataAscidiaceaPhlebobranchiaAscidiidae
Eugyra arenosa 10376423SChordataAscidiaceaStolidobranchiaMolgulidae
Styelidae10345011EChordataAscidiaceaStolidobranchiaStyelidae
Branchiostoma lanceolatum 10490643BChordataLeptocardii Branchiostomidae
Actinia equina 10080311ECnidariaAnthozoaActiniariaActiniidae
Urticina felina 10083411ECnidariaAnthozoaActiniariaActiniidae
Edwardsia10073022SCnidariaAnthozoaActiniariaEdwardsiidae
Edwardsia claparedii 10088022SCnidariaAnthozoaActiniariaEdwardsiidae
Edwardsiidae10066522SCnidariaAnthozoaActiniariaEdwardsiidae
Scolanthus callimorphus 10091022SCnidariaAnthozoaActiniariaEdwardsiidae
Halcampa chrysanthellum 10091622SCnidariaAnthozoaActiniariaHalcampidae
Calliactis parasitica 10094622SCnidariaAnthozoaActiniariaHormathiidae
Sagartia troglodytes 10099411ECnidariaAnthozoaActiniariaSagartiidae
Actiniaria136022SCnidariaAnthozoaActiniaria 
Cerianthus10078221SCnidariaAnthozoaCerianthariaCerianthidae
Cerianthus lloydii 28379821SCnidariaAnthozoaCerianthariaCerianthidae
Pteroeides griseum 18150422SCnidariaAnthozoaPennatulaceaPennatulidae
Virgularia mirabilis 12853922SCnidariaAnthozoaPennatulaceaVirgulariidae
Asterias rubens 12377613EEchinodermataAsteroideaForcipulatidaAsteriidae
Astropecten irregularis 12386723SEchinodermataAsteroideaPaxillosidaAstropectinidae
Psammechinus miliaris 12431913EEchinodermataEchinoideaCamarodontaParechinidae
Echinocyamus pusillus 12427323SEchinodermataEchinoideaClypeasteroidaEchinocyamidae
Echinidea51053443BEchinodermataEchinoideaEchinoida 
Brissopsis lyrifera 12437343BEchinodermataEchinoideaSpatangoidaBrissidae
Echinocardium12342643BEchinodermataEchinoideaSpatangoidaLoveniidae
Echinocardium cordatum 12439243BEchinodermataEchinoideaSpatangoidaLoveniidae
Echinocardium flavescens 12439443BEchinodermataEchinoideaSpatangoidaLoveniidae
Spatangus purpureus 12441843BEchinodermataEchinoideaSpatangoidaSpatangidae
Spatangoida12310643BEchinodermataEchinoideaSpatangoida 
Labidoplax buskii 12445523SEchinodermataHolothuroideaApodidaSynaptidae
Leptosynapta12344923SEchinodermataHolothuroideaApodidaSynaptidae
Leptosynapta bergensis 12446223SEchinodermataHolothuroideaApodidaSynaptidae
Leptosynapta inhaerens 12446523SEchinodermataHolothuroideaApodidaSynaptidae
Oestergrenia digitata 15254723SEchinodermataHolothuroideaApodidaSynaptidae
Synaptidae12318223SEchinodermataHolothuroideaApodidaSynaptidae
Leptopentacta12348123SEchinodermataHolothuroideaDendrochirotidaCucumariidae
Leptopentacta elongata 12463523SEchinodermataHolothuroideaDendrochirotidaCucumariidae
Leptopentacta elongata 12463523SEchinodermataHolothuroideaDendrochirotidaCucumariidae
Leptopentacta tergestina 12463623SEchinodermataHolothuroideaDendrochirotidaCucumariidae
Thyone fusus 12467023SEchinodermataHolothuroideaDendrochirotidaCucumariidae
Amphilepis norvegica 12505743BEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaAmphilepididae
Acrocnida brachiata 23613043BEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaAmphiuridae
Amphipholis squamata 12506443BEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaAmphiuridae
Amphiura12361343BEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaAmphiuridae
Amphiura (Ophiopeltis) securigera 12519543BEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaAmphiuridae
Amphiura chiajei 12507343BEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaAmphiuridae
Amphiura filiformis 12508043BEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaAmphiuridae
Ophiocomina nigra 12502722SEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaOphiocomidae
Ophiothrix fragilis 12513122SEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaOphiotrichidae
Ophiocten affinis 12485022SEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaOphiuridae
Ophiura12357422SEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaOphiuridae
Ophiura albida 12491322SEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaOphiuridae
Ophiura ophiura 12492922SEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaOphiuridae
Ophiuridae12320022SEchinodermataOphiuroideaOphiuridaOphiuridae
Maxmuelleria gigas 11036754REchiuraEchiuroideaBonelliidaBonelliidae
Echiurus echiurus 11037732DCEchiuraEchiuroideaEchiuridaEchiuridae
Thalassema thalassemum 11037532DCEchiuraEchiuroideaEchiuridaEchiuridae
Echiurida11034532DCEchiuraEchiuroideaEchiurida 
Echiura126932DCEchiura   
Glandiceps talaboti 13761254RHemiChordataEnteropneustaEnteropneustaSpengelidae
Enteroptneusta17873854RHemiChordataEnteropneusta  
Ensis magnus 16053922SMolluscaBivalvia[unassigned] EuheterodontaPharidae
Hiatella arctica 14010312EMolluscaBivalvia[unassigned] EuheterodontaHiatellidae
Saxicavella jeffreysi 14010812EMolluscaBivalvia[unassigned] EuheterodontaHiatellidae
Ensis13833322SMolluscaBivalvia[unassigned] EuheterodontaPharidae
Ensis directus 14073222SMolluscaBivalvia[unassigned] EuheterodontaPharidae
Ensis ensis 14073322SMolluscaBivalvia[unassigned] EuheterodontaPharidae
Pharus legumen 14073622SMolluscaBivalvia[unassigned] EuheterodontaPharidae
Phaxas adriaticus 15634322SMolluscaBivalvia[unassigned] EuheterodontaPharidae
Phaxas pellucidus 14073722SMolluscaBivalvia[unassigned] EuheterodontaPharidae
Cuspidaria obesa 13945032UC/DCMolluscaBivalviaAnomalodesmataCuspidariidae
Lyonsia norwegica 14029122SMolluscaBivalviaAnomalodesmataLyonsiidae
Cochlodesma praetenue 18137332DCMolluscaBivalviaAnomalodesmataPeriplomatidae
Thracia13854932DCMolluscaBivalviaAnomalodesmataThraciidae
Thracia convexa 14164432DCMolluscaBivalviaAnomalodesmataThraciidae
Thracia phaseolina 15237832DCMolluscaBivalviaAnomalodesmataThraciidae
Thracia villosiuscula 14165132DCMolluscaBivalviaAnomalodesmataThraciidae
Glycymeris glycymeris 14002522SMolluscaBivalviaArcoidaGlycymerididae
Limopsis cristata 14025311EMolluscaBivalviaArcoidaLimopsidae
Astarte borealis 13881822SMolluscaBivalviaCarditoidaAstartidae
Astarte montagui 13882322SMolluscaBivalviaCarditoidaAstartidae
Goodallia triangularis 13883122SMolluscaBivalviaCarditoidaAstartidae
Arcturellina49219722SMolluscaBivalviaCarditoidaCarditidae
Limatula gwyni 14023712EMolluscaBivalviaLimoidaLimidae
Limatula subauriculata 14024212E MolluscaBivalviaLimoidaLimidae
Lucinella divaricata 14028222SMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaLucinidae
Lucinoma borealis 14028322SMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaLucinidae
Myrtea spinifera 14028722SMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaLucinidae
Axinulus croulinensis 23416132DCMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaThyasiridae
Axinulus eumyarius 23416232UC/DCMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaThyasiridae
Mendicula ferruginosa 15290522SMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaThyasiridae
Mendicula pygmaea 15242422SMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaThyasiridae
Thyasira13855232DCMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaThyasiridae
Thyasira biplicata 14165532DCMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaThyasiridae
Thyasira equalis 14165932DCMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaThyasiridae
Thyasira flexuosa 14166232DCMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaThyasiridae
Thyasira obsoleta 14166832DCMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaThyasiridae
Thyasira sarsi 14167232DCMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaThyasiridae
Thyasira succisa 14167632DCMolluscaBivalviaLucinoidaThyasiridae
Corbula gibba 13941022SMolluscaBivalviaMyoidaCorbulidae
Mya13821122SMolluscaBivalviaMyoidaMyidae
Mya arenaria 14043022SMolluscaBivalviaMyoidaMyidae
Mya truncata 14043122SMolluscaBivalviaMyoidaMyidae
Sphenia binghami 14043222SMolluscaBivalviaMyoidaMyidae
Crenella decussata 14044023SMolluscaBivalviaMytiloidaMytilidae
Modiolula phaseolina 14046122SMolluscaBivalviaMytiloidaMytilidae
Modiolus modiolus 14046722SMolluscaBivalviaMytiloidaMytilidae
Mytilus13822811EMolluscaBivalviaMytiloidaMytilidae
Mytilus edulis 14048011EMolluscaBivalviaMytiloidaMytilidae
Nuculana minuta 14057723SMolluscaBivalviaNuculanoidaNuculanidae
Yoldiella lucida 14200223SMolluscaBivalviaNuculanoidaYoldiidae
Ennucula tenuis 14058423SMolluscaBivalviaNuculidaNuculidae
Nucula13826223SMolluscaBivalviaNuculidaNuculidae
Nucula hanleyi 14058823SMolluscaBivalviaNuculidaNuculidae
Nucula nitidosa 14058923SMolluscaBivalviaNuculidaNuculidae
Nucula nucleus 14059023SMolluscaBivalviaNuculidaNuculidae
Nucula sulcata 14059223SMolluscaBivalviaNuculidaNuculidae
Nucula turgida 15227423SMolluscaBivalviaNuculidaNuculidae
Nuculidae20423SMolluscaBivalviaNuculidaNuculidae
Anomiidae21411EMolluscaBivalviaPectinoidaAnomiidae
Monia patelliformis 15302722SMolluscaBivalviaPectinoidaAnomiidae
Aequipecten opercularis 14068723SMolluscaBivalviaPectinoidaPectinidae
Palliolum striatum 14070923SMolluscaBivalviaPectinoidaPectinidae
Palliolum tigerinum 14071023SMolluscaBivalviaPectinoidaPectinidae
Pectinidae21323SMolluscaBivalviaPectinoidaPectinidae
Arctica islandica 13880222SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaArcticidae
Acanthocardia13773222SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaCardiidae
Acanthocardia aculeata 13899022SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaCardiidae
Acanthocardia echinata 13899222SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaCardiidae
Acanthocardia paucicostata 13899322SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaCardiidae
Cardiidae22922SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaCardiidae
Cerastoderma edule 13899822SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaCardiidae
Laevicardium crassum 13900422SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaCardiidae
Parvicardium exiguum 13900822SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaCardiidae
Parvicardium minimum 13901022SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaCardiidae
Parvicardium scabrum 13901222SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaCardiidae
Donax vittatus 13960422SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaDonacidae
Kelliella miliaris 15239642BMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaKelliellidae
Vesicomya abyssicola 46433342BMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaKelliellidae
Hemilepton nitidum 24614822SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaLasaeidae
Lepton squamosum 14021822SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaLasaeidae
Lutraria lutraria 14029522SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMactridae
Mactra13815822SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMactridae
Mactra stultorum 14029922SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMactridae
Spisula13815922SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMactridae
Spisula elliptica 14030022SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMactridae
Spisula solida 14030122SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMactridae
Spisula subtruncata 14030222SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMactridae
Devonia perrieri 14036522SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMontacutidae
Epilepton clarkiae 14036622SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMontacutidae
Kurtiella bidentata 34528122SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMontacutidae
Montacuta phascolionis 14037422SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMontacutidae
Montacuta substriata 14037722SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMontacutidae
Tellimya ferruginosa 14695222SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMontacutidae
Tellimya tenella 15239722SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaMontacutidae
Gari13838822SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaPsammobiidae
Gari costulata 14086822SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaPsammobiidae
Gari depressa 14086922SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaPsammobiidae
Gari fervensis 14087022SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaPsammobiidae
Gari tellinella 14087322SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaPsammobiidae
Abra13847422SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaSemelidae
Abra alba 14143322SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaSemelidae
Abra nitida 14143522SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaSemelidae
Abra prismatica 14143622SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaSemelidae
Azorinus chamasolen 14154122SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaSolecurtidae
Solecurtus scopula 14154322SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaSolecurtidae
Angulus14649122SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTellinidae
Angulus fabula 15282922SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTellinidae
Angulus incarnatus 59411422SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTellinidae
Angulus pygmaeus 15282822SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTellinidae
Angulus tenuis 14649222SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTellinidae
Arcopagia crassa 14157722SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTellinidae
Macoma balthica 14157922SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTellinidae
Moerella donacina 14702122SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTellinidae
Peronaea planata 60593422SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTellinidae
Tellina distorta 14158522SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTellinidae
Tellina nitida 14158922SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTellinidae
Turtonia minuta 14187522SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaTurtoniidae
Chamelea gallina 14190722SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Chamelea striatula 14190822SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Clausinella fasciata 14190922SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Dosinia13863622SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Dosinia exoleta 14191122SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Dosinia lupinus 14191222SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Gouldia minima 14191622SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Mysia undata 14072822SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Petricolaria pholadiformis 15696122SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Polititapes virgineus 50787722SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Timoclea ovata 14192922SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Venerupis corrugata 18136422SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Venerupis corrugata 18136422SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Venus casina 14193422SMolluscaBivalviaVeneroidaVeneridae
Chaetoderma nitidulum 13910622SMolluscaCaudofoveataChaetodermatidaChaetodermatidae
Caudofoveata15136522SMolluscaCaudofoveata  
Odostomia scalaris 14101443BMolluscaGastropoda Pyramidellidae
Gibbula cineraria 14178213EMolluscaGastropoda Trochidae
Bittium reticulatum 13905424SMolluscaGastropoda[unassigned] CaenogastropodaCerithiidae
Epitonium turtonis 13973822SMolluscaGastropoda[unassigned] CaenogastropodaEpitoniidae
Eulima bilineata 56694043BMolluscaGastropoda[unassigned] CaenogastropodaEulimidae
Eulima glabra 13980543BMolluscaGastropoda[unassigned] CaenogastropodaEulimidae
Eulimidae13543BMolluscaGastropoda[unassigned] CaenogastropodaEulimidae
Vitreolina philippi 13990343BMolluscaGastropoda[unassigned] CaenogastropodaEulimidae
Turritella communis 14187243BMolluscaGastropoda[unassigned] CaenogastropodaTurritellidae
Hedylopsis spiculifera 14008543BMolluscaGastropodaAcochlidiaceaHedylopsidae
Akera bullata 13873423SMolluscaGastropodaAnaspideaAkeridae
Cylichna alba 13947423SMolluscaGastropodaCephalaspideaCylichnidae
Cylichna cylindracea 13947623SMolluscaGastropodaCephalaspideaCylichnidae
Philine13833923SMolluscaGastropodaCephalaspideaPhilinidae
Philine aperta 14074423SMolluscaGastropodaCephalaspideaPhilinidae
Philine scabra 14076123SMolluscaGastropodaCephalaspideaPhilinidae
Retusa13843223SMolluscaGastropodaCephalaspideaRetusidae
Retusa truncatula 14113823SMolluscaGastropodaCephalaspideaRetusidae
Roxania utriculus 13948623SMolluscaGastropodaCephalaspideaScaphandridae
Scaphander lignarius 13948823SMolluscaGastropodaCephalaspideaScaphandridae
Aporrhais pespelecani 13876023SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaAporrhaidae
Caecum glabrum 13895212EMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaCaecidae
Crepidula fornicata 13896311EMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaCalyptraeidae
Galeodea echinophora 13902314EMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaCassidae
Hydrobiidae12023SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaHydrobiidae
Ceratia13808223SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaIravadiidae
Ceratia proxima 14012823SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaIravadiidae
Hyala vitrea 14012923SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaIravadiidae
Euspira pulchella 14053923SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaNaticidae
Lunatia catena 15059023SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaNaticidae
Lunatia montagui 15063923SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaNaticidae
Naticidae14523SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaNaticidae
Alvania13843923SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaRissoidae
Alvania cancellata 14116523SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaRissoidae
Alvania cimicoides 14116823SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaRissoidae
Alvania subsoluta 14124723SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaRissoidae
Alvania testae 14125123SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaRissoidae
Rissoa13845623SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaRissoidae
Rissoa parva 14136523SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaRissoidae
Lamellaria latens 14017223SMolluscaGastropodaLittorinimorphaVelutinidae
Buccinum undatum 13887824SMolluscaGastropodaNeogastropodaBuccinidae
Neptunea antiqua 13892024SMolluscaGastropodaNeogastropodaBuccinidae
Mangelia attenuata 13926524SMolluscaGastropodaNeogastropodaConidae
Raphitoma linearis 13937124SMolluscaGastropodaNeogastropodaConidae
Nassarius incrassatus 14050323SMolluscaGastropodaNeogastropodaNassariidae
Nassarius reticulatus 14051323SMolluscaGastropodaNeogastropodaNassariidae
Onchidoris13828811SMolluscaGastropodaNudibranchiaOnchidorididae
Cuthona13854312EMolluscaGastropodaNudibranchiaTergipedidae
Acteon tornatilis 13869123SMolluscaGastropoda Acteonidae
Turbonilla13842122SMolluscaGastropoda Pyramidellidae
Turbonilla acuta 14105222SMolluscaGastropoda Pyramidellidae
Turbonilla crenata 14105722SMolluscaGastropoda Pyramidellidae
Rissoella14417323SMolluscaGastropoda Rissoellidae
Rissoella diaphana 14114723SMolluscaGastropoda Rissoellidae
Rissoella opalina 14114923SMolluscaGastropoda Rissoellidae
Lepidochitona (Lepidochitona) cinerea 14014312EMolluscaPolyplacophoraChitonidaTonicellidae
Leptochiton asellus 14019912EMolluscaPolyplacophoraLepidopleuridaLeptochitonidae
Antalis entalis 15053432UCMolluscaScaphopodaDentaliidaDentaliidae
Antalis vulgaris 19638032UC/DCMolluscaScaphopodaDentaliidaDentaliidae
Entalina tetragona 13969122SMolluscaScaphopodaGadilidaEntalinidae
Nematoda79922SNematoda   
Cerebratulus12234843BNemerteaAnopla Cerebratulidae
Lineidae12231443BNemerteaAnopla Cerebratulidae
Nemertea15239143BNemertea   
Tubularia60094711EOchrophytaBacillariophyceae  
Phoronida178921SPhoronida  Phoronidae
Phoronis12854521SPhoronida   
Phoronis muelleri 12854921SPhoronida   
Phoronis pallida 12855121SPhoronida   
Turbellaria79422SPlatyhelminthesTurbellaria  
Platyhelminthes79322SPlatyhelminthes   
Pachymatisma johnstonia 13405711EPoriferaDemospongiaeAstrophoridaGeodiidae
Golfingia13602143BSipunculaSipunculideaGolfingiidaGolfingiidae
Golfingia (Golfingia) elongata 17502643BSipunculaSipunculideaGolfingiidaGolfingiidae
Golfingia (Golfingia) iniqua 13604243BSipunculaSipunculideaGolfingiidaGolfingiidae
Golfingia (Golfingia) vulgaris vulgaris 41072443BSipunculaSipunculideaGolfingiidaGolfingiidae
Nephasoma (Nephasoma) minutum 13606043BSipunculaSipunculideaGolfingiidaGolfingiidae
Thysanocardia procera 13606343BSipunculaSipunculideaGolfingiidaGolfingiidae
Onchnesoma 13602443BSipunculaSipunculideaGolfingiidaPhascolionidae
Onchnesoma magnibathum 13606443BSipunculaSipunculideaGolfingiidaPhascolionidae
Onchnesoma steenstrupii steenstrupii 41074222SSipunculaSipunculideaGolfingiidaPhascolionidae
Phascolion (Phascolion) strombus strombus 41074922SSipunculaSipunculideaGolfingiidaPhascolionidae
Sipunculidea129643BSipunculaSipunculidea  
Sipuncula126843BSipunculida   
Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) muelleri muelleri 41071743B    
Ericthonius10156721S    
Goneplax rhomboides 10729244B    
Isaeidae10138823S    
Melitidae10139722S    

Discussion

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Conflict of Interest
  9. References

As with any functional classification that on which BPc is calculated relies on three main assumptions. Understanding these assumptions, and the need to correct for them where information is available, is key steps in the adequate use of BPc as a metric:

  1. If body size is constant, the BPc of a species/taxon (BPi) is transferable across space and time. BPc accounts for two “fixed” traits (Ri and Mi) that are assumed to be directly related to life-history traits and activity levels of each species, that are not altered by context or spatiotemporal variation. Where information to the contrary is available about the alteration of species behavior in response to external stimuli, context-specific adjustments to reworking and mobility trait scores should be made accordingly: for example, thermal stress (Ouellette et al. 2004; Przeslawski et al. 2009); habitat structure (Godbold et al. 2011); ocean acidification (Godbold and Solan 2013); or presence of a predator (Maire et al. 2010). For instance, sediment type has been observed to be influential when determining the classification of a particular species into one of two specific functional groups (Needham et al. 2011), but this has not been documented for the vast majority of bioturbators. Incorporation of this type of information could be achieved using more sophisticated routines, such as fuzzy coding, to capture the influence of intraspecific variability in reworking and mobility traits (Maire et al. 2007; Bremner 2008; Godbold et al. 2011) across known sources of variation (habitat, season, food availability, etc.). The paucity of such information present for the majority of marine species (Tyler et al. 2012) is a source of concern and will be needed to project potential changes in BPc under future policy or environmental scenarios. Typical body size is a “flexible” trait in the metric, which will vary in response to environmental variation, seasonality, stress, and disturbance (Queirós et al. 2006; Macdonald et al. 2012). BPc captures this information through changes in the biomass/abundance ratio on which typical body size is calculated.
  2. An organism's reworking (Ri) and mobility (Mi) modes remain the same across the life span of each individual. Thus far, variation in burrowing behavior across life stages has been poorly documented in the literature. However, in some species, juveniles and adults are known to exhibit different burial behavior, which can also be modified during reproductive stages (Aguzzi and Sardà 2007; Schwalb and Pusch 2009). If such changes in behavior are known to occur, different trait scores should be attributed as appropriate to different genders or life stages.
  3. Where no species level information exists, taxa are assumed to have a similar bioturbation mode to others, which are closely related taxonomically. The paucity of information on many bioturbators (Teal et al. 2008) necessitates matching some species with the closest possible species or taxonomic group (e.g., genus or family). Regardless of whether taxonomic relatedness is a good indicator of the ecological characteristics of a species (Bevilacqua et al. 2012), the table presented here does not account for changes in taxonomic classification over time. Such changes in taxonomy could alter an organism's taxonomic relatedness to other taxa and therefore its assumed bioturbation classification. For example, Alitta virens (Sars 1835) and Hediste diversicolor (Müller 1776) may have been classified as being functionally similar, as both these species were formerly classified under the genus Nereis (Linnaeus 1758). Recent changes to their taxonomic classification now better reflect fundamental differences in bioturbation modes (i.e., gallery diffusor and conveyor, respectively, François et al. 2002). Nevertheless, in the absence of specific information, we consider it likely that genetically and physically similar taxa are likely to be functionally similar. As BPc is a biomass-weighted sum of traits from many species, we consider it unlikely that small changes to trait assignments of individual species would greatly influence large-scale assessments. The current structure of the table reflects the taxonomic classification of the species at the time of analysis and will need updating as taxonomic inventories are refined.

Accepting the limitations imposed by the assumptions underpinning BPc, the classification list we have assembled will facilitate the calculation of BPc across most temperate coast and shelf benthic environments in the North Atlantic. This aspects makes a strong case for a wider implementation of BPc as a standardized indicator: the ability to build on existing data (abundance and biomass) to fill gaps about bioturbation patterns where direct assessments are not, or cannot, been routinely carried out. Further efforts will need to take place for other regions of the world or particular circumstances. There is also tremendous potential for application to historical datasets, to estimate bioturbation rates in the past, providing insight into how this process has helped to shape sedimentary ecosystems over time (Solan et al. 2008). Finally, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC) now requires an integrated understanding and management of regional scale patterns of marine ecosystem functioning, based on the use of inexpensive, rapid indicators. Few functional indicators currently exist for European waters, and initial tests of the suitability and applicability of BPc suggest that it holds promise as a tool for informing management and policy (Van Hoey et al. 2010; Birchenough et al. 2012).

Acknowledgments

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Conflict of Interest
  9. References

This publication was initiated and facilitated by the Study Group Climate Related Benthic Processes in the North Sea (SGCBNS), which is an expert group of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Funding was supported by the Western Channel Observatory, part of the UK Natural Environmental Research Council's National Capability (Queirós, Somerfield and Widdicombe), the Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs under Science-Level Agreement SLA31 (Birchenough), the Conseil Régional d'Aquitaine and the University of Bordeaux 1 (Romero-Ramirez), and the Flemish Fund for Scientific Research (Van Colen). Caroline Louise McNeill and Sarah Dashfield are thanked for their contributions towards one of the datasets analyzed. Celine Labrune and Jean-Michel Amouroux are thanked for contributions towards another.

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  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Conflict of Interest
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