SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Airoldi, L. and M. W. Beck. 2007. Loss, status and trends for coastal marine habitats of Europe. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 35:345405.
  • Aldridge, J., J. van de Molen, and R. Forster. 2012. Wider ecological implications of macroalgae cultivation. The Crown Estate, Marine Estate Research Report. pp. 95.
  • Balasse, M., A. Tresset, K. Dobney, and S. H. Ambrose. 2005. The use of isotope ratios to test for seaweed eating in sheep. J. Zool. 266:283291.
  • Bearham, D., M. A. Vanderklift, and J. R. Gunson. 2013. Temperature and light explain spatial variation in growth and productivity of the kelp Ecklonia radiata. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 476:5970.
  • Beaumont, N. J., M. C. Austen, J. P. Atkins, D. Burdon, S. Degraer, T. P. Dentinho, et al. 2007. Identification, definition and quantification of goods and services provided by marine biodiversity: implications for the ecosystem approach. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 54:253265.
  • Beaumont, N. J., M. C. Austen, S. C. Mangi, and M. Townsend. 2008. Economic valuation for the conservation of marine biodiversity. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 56:386396.
  • Bedford, A. P. and P. G. Moore. 1984. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: the detritivore community and species interactions. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 18:97111.
  • Bertness, M. D. and R. Callaway. 1994. Positive interactions in communities. Trends Ecol. Evol. 9:191193.
  • Birchenough, S., and J. Bremmer. 2010. Shallow and shelf subtidal habitats and ecology. MCCIP Annual Report Card 2010-11, MCCIP Science Review, Pp. 16.
  • Bixler, H. J. and H. Porse. 2011. A decade of change in the seaweed hydrocolloids industry. J. Appl. Phycol. 23:321335.
  • Blight, A. J. and R. C. Thompson. 2008. Epibiont species richness varies between holdfasts of a northern and southerly distributed kelp species. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 88:469475.
  • Bologna, P. A. X. and R. S. Steneck. 1993. Kelp beds as habitat for American lobster Homarus americanus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 100:127134.
  • Bolton, J. J. 2010. The biogeography of kelps (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae): a global analysis with new insights from recent advances in molecular phylogenetics. Helgol. Mar. Res. 64:263279.
  • Breeman, A. M. 1990. Expected effects of changing seawater temperatures on the geographic distribution of seaweed species. Pp. 6976 in J. J. Beaukema, W. J. Wolf and J. J. W. M. Brouns, eds. Expected effects of climate change on marine coastal ecosystems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  • Breen, P. A. and K. H. Mann. 1976. Destructive grazing of kelp by sea urchins in Eastern Canada. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33:12781283.
  • Brierley, A. S. and M. J. Kingsford. 2009. Impacts of climate change on marine organisms and ecosystems. Curr. Biol. 19:R602R614.
  • Brodie, J., R. A. Andersen, M. Kawachi, and A. J. K. Millar. 2009. Endangered algal species and how to protect them. Phycologia 48:423438.
  • Bulleri, F., L. Benedetti-Cecchi, and F. Cinelli. 1999. Grazing by the sea urchins Arbacia lixula L. and Paracentrotus lividus Lam. in the Northwest Mediterranean. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 241:8195.
  • Burrows, M. T. 2012. Influences of wave fetch, tidal flow and ocean colour on subtidal rocky communities. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 445:193207.
  • Bustamante, R. H. and G. M. Branch. 1996. Large scale patterns and trophic structure of Southern African rocky shores: the roles of geographic variation and wave exposure. J. Biogeogr. 23:339351.
  • Byrnes, J. E., D. C. Reed, B. J. Cardinale, K. C. Cavanaugh, S. J. Holbrook, and R. J. Schmitt. 2011. Climate-driven increases in storm frequency simplify kelp forest food webs. Glob. Change Biol. 17:25132524.
  • Castric-Fey, A., A. Girard, and M. T. L'Hardy-Halos. 1993. The distribution of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) on the coast of St. Malo (Brittany, France). Bot. Mar. 36:351358.
  • Christie, H., S. Fredriksen, and E. Rinde. 1998. Regrowth of kelp and colonization of epiphyte and fauna community after kelp trawling at the coast of Norway. Hydrobiologia 375–376:4958.
  • Christie, H., N. M. Jorgensen, K. M. Norderhaug, and E. Waage-Nielsen. 2003. Species distribution and habitat exploitation of fauna associated with kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) along the Norwegian coast. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 83:687699.
  • Coleman, M. A., M. Roughan, H. S. Macdonald, S. D. Connell, B. M. Gillanders, B. P. Kelaher, et al. 2011. Variation in the strength of continental boundary currents determines continent-wide connectivity in kelp. J. Ecol. 99:10261032.
  • Connell, S. 2003. Negative effects overpower the positive of kelp to exclude invertebrates from the understorey community. Oecologia 137:97103.
  • Connell, S. D. and B. D. Russell. 2010. The direct effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests. Proc. Biol. Sci. 277:14091415.
  • Connell, S. D., B. D. Russell, D. J. Turner, S. A. Shepherd, T. Kildea, D. Miller, et al. 2008. Recovering a lost baseline: missing kelp forests from a metropolitan coast. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 360:6372.
  • Costanza, R., R. Darge, R. Degroot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, et al. 1997. The value of the worlds ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253260.
  • Crain, C. M., K. Kroeker, and B. S. Halpern. 2008. Interactive and cumulative effects of multiple human stressors in marine systems. Ecol. Lett. 11:13041315.
  • Dayton, P. K. 1985. Ecology of kelp communities. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16:215245.
  • Dayton, P. K. and M. J. Tegner. 1984. Catastrophic storms, El Niño, and patch stability in a southern California kelp community. Science 224:283285.
  • Dayton, P. K., M. J. Tegner, P. E. Parnell, and P. B. Edwards. 1992. Temporal and spatial patterns of disturbance and recovery in a kelp forest community. Ecol. Monogr. 62:421445.
  • Dayton, P. K., M. J. Tegner, P. B. Edwards, and K. L. Riser. 1998. Sliding baselines, ghosts, and reduced expectations in kelp forest communities. Ecol. Appl. 8:309322.
  • Dayton, P. K., M. J. Tegner, P. B. Edwards, and K. L. Riser. 1999. Temporal and spatial scales of kelp demography: the role of oceanographic climate. Ecol. Monogr. 69:219250.
  • De Bettignies, T., T. Wernberg, P. S. Lavery, M. A. Vanderklift, and M. B. Mohring. 2013. Contrasting mechanisms of dislodgement and erosion contribute to production of kelp detritus. Limnol. Oceanogr. 058:16801688. Doi: 10.4319/lo.2013.4358.4315.0000.
  • Delebecq, G., D. Davoult, D. Menu, M. Janquin, J. Dauvin, and F. Gevaert. 2013. Influence of local environmental conditions on the seasonal acclimation process and the daily integrated production rates of Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyta) in the English Channel. Mar. Biol. 160:503517.
  • Diez, I., N. Muguerza, U. Santolaria, U. Ganzedo, and J. M. Gorostiaga. 2012. Seaweed assemblage changes in the eastern Cantabrian Sea and their potential relationship to climate change. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 99:108120.
  • Duggins, D. O. and J. E. Eckman. 1997. Is kelp detritus a good food for suspension feeders? Effects of kelp species, age and secondary metabolites. Mar. Biol. 128:489495.
  • Duggins, D. O. and J. A. Estes. 1989. Magnification of secondary production by kelp detritus in coastal marine ecosystems. Science 245:170173.
  • Eckman, J. E., D. O. Duggins, and A. T. Sewell. 1989. Ecology of under story kelp environments. I. Effects of kelps on flow and particle transport near the bottom. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 129:173187.
  • Edwards, A. 1980. Ecological studies of the kelp, Laminaria hyperborea, and its associated fauna in South-West Ireland. Ophelia 19:4760.
  • Edwards, M. S. 2004. Estimating scale-dependency in disturbance impacts: El Niños and giant kelp forests in the northeast Pacific. Oecologia 138:436447.
  • Elliott, M., J. Hargreaves, and S. Pilgrim. 2012. UK sea fisheries statistics 2011. National Statistics report for the Marine Management Organisation. pp. 140.
  • Eriksson, B. K., G. Johansson, and P. Snoeijs. 2002. Long-term changes in the macroalgal vegetation of the inner Gullmar fjord, Swedish Skagerrak coast. J. Phycol. 38:284296.
  • Erlandson, J. M., M. H. Graham, B. J. Bourque, D. Corbett, J. A. Estes, and R. S. Steneck. 2007. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas. J. Island Coast. Archaeol. 2:161174.
  • Estes, J. A. and D. O. Duggins. 1995. Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigm. Ecol. Monogr. 65:75100.
  • Fairhead, V. A. and A. C. Cheshire. 2004. Rates of primary productivity and growth in Ecklonia radiata measured at different depths, over an annual cycle, at West Island, South Australia. Mar. Biol. 145:4150.
  • Farrell, P. and R. L. Fletcher. 2006. An investigation of dispersal of the introduced brown alga Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and its competition with some species on the man-made structures of Torquay Marina (Devon, UK). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 334:236243.
  • Feng, M., M. J. McPhaden, S. Xie, and J. Hafner. 2013. La Niña forces unprecedented Leeuwin Current warming in 2011. Sci. Rep. 3:1277.
  • Fernandez, C. 2011. The retreat of large brown seaweeds on the north coast of Spain: the case of Sacchoriza polyschides. Eur. J. Phycol. 46:352360.
  • Fletcher, R. L. and C. Manfredi. 1995. The occurrence of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) on the south coast of England. Bot. Mar. 38:355.
  • Folland, C. K., J. Knight, H. W. Linderholm, D. Fereday, S. Ineson, and J. W. Hurrell. 2009. The summer North Atlantic Oscillation: past, present, and future. J. Clim. 22:10821103.
  • Forsythe, W. 2006. The archaeology of the kelp industry in the northern islands of Ireland. Int. J. Nautical Archaeol. 35:218229.
  • Foster, M. S., M. S. Edwards, D. C. Reed, D. R. Schiel, and R. C. Zimmerman. 2006. Letters: top-down vs. bottom-up effects in kelp forests. Science 313:17371739.
  • Fry, J. M., P. J. Joyce, and S. Aumonier. 2012. Carbon footprint of seaweed as a biofuel. Prepared by Environmental Resources Management Limited (ERM) for the Crown Estate.
  • Gagné, J. A., K. H. Mann, and A. R. O. Chapman. 1982. Seasonal patterns of growth and storage in Laminaria longicruris in relation to differing patterns of availability of nitrogen in the water. Mar. Biol. 69:91101.
  • Gaylord, B., J. H. Rosman, D. C. Reed, J. R. Koseff, J. Fram, S. MacIntyre, et al. 2007. Spatial patterns of flow and their modification within and around a giant kelp forest. Limnol. Oceanogr. 52:18381852.
  • Guenther, C. M., H. S. Lenihan, L. E. Grant, D. Lopez-Carr, and D. C. Reed. 2012. Trophic cascades induced by lobster fishing are not ubiquitous in Southern California kelp forests. PLoS ONE 7:e49396.
  • Hagen, N. T. 1983. Destructive grazing of kelp beds by sea urchins in Vestfjorden, northern Norway. Sarsia 68:177190.
  • Halpern, B. S., K. Cottenie, and B. R. Broitman. 2006. Strong top-down control in southern California kelp forest ecosystems. Science 312:12301232.
  • Halpern, B. S., S. Walbridge, K. A. Selkoe, C. V. Kappel, F. Micheli, C. D'Agrosa, et al. 2008. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319:948952.
  • Harley, C. D. G., A. Randall Hughes, K. M. Hultgren, B. G. Miner, C. J. B. Sorte, C. S. Thornber, et al. 2006. The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems. Ecol. Lett. 9:228241.
  • Harley, C. D. G., K. M. Anderson, K. W. Demes, J. P. Jorve, R. L. Kordas, T. A. Coyle, et al. 2012. Effects of climate change on global seaweed communities. J. Phycol. 48:10641078.
  • Harvey, B. P., D. Gwynn-Jones, and P. J. Moore. 2013. Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming. Ecol. Evol. 3:10161030.
  • Hawkins, S. J. and E. Harkin. 1985. Preliminary canopy removal experiments in algal dominated communities low on the shore and in the shallow subtidal on the Isle of Man. Bot. Mar. 28:223230.
  • Hawkins, S. J., H. E. Sugden, N. Mieszkowska, P. J. Moore, E. Poloczanska, R. Leaper, et al. 2009. Consequences of climate-driven biodiversity changes for ecosystem functioning of North European rocky shores. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 396:245259.
  • Helmuth, B., N. Mieszkowska, P. J. Moore, and S. J. Hawkins. 2006. Living on the edge of two changing worlds: forecasting the responses of intertidal ecosystems to climate change. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 37:373404.
  • Hereu, B., M. Zabala, C. Linares, and E. Sala. 2004. Temporal and spatial variability in settlement of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in the NW Mediterranean. Mar. Biol. 144:10111018.
  • Hiscock, K. 1998. Marine nature conservation review. Benthic marine ecosystems of Great Britain and the north-east Atlantic. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, U.K.
  • Hiscock, K., A. Southward, I. Tittley, and S. J. Hawkins. 2004. Effects of changing temperature on benthic marine life in Britain and Ireland. Aquat. Conserv. 14:333362.
  • Hjorleifsson, E., O. Kassa, and K. Gunnarsson. 1995. Grazing of kelp by green sea urchins in Eyyjafjordu. Pp.593597 in H. R. Skjoldal, C. Hopkins, K. K. Erikstad and H. P. Leinass, eds. Ecology of fjords and coastal waters. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  • Hoegh-Guldberg, O. and J. F. Bruno. 2010. The impact of climate change on the world's marine ecosystems. Science 328:15231528.
  • Hughes, S. L., N. P. Holliday, J. Kennedy, D. I. Berry, E. C. Kent, T. Sherwin, et al. 2010. Temperature (air and sea). MCCIP Annual Report Card 2010-11, MCCIP Science Review, Pp. 16.
  • Hyndes, G. A., P. S. Lavery, and C. Doropoulos. 2012. Dual processes for cross-boundary subsidies: incorporation of nutrients from reef-derived kelp into a seagrass ecosystem. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 445:97107.
  • Ince, R., G. A. Hyndes, P. S. Lavery, and M. A. Vanderklift. 2007. Marine macrophytes directly enhance abundances of sandy beach fauna through provision of food and habitat. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 74:7786.
  • Irigoyen, A., G. Trobbiani, M. Sgarlatta, and M. Raffo. 2011. Effects of the alien algae Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) on the diversity and abundance of benthic macrofauna in Golfo Nuevo (Patagonia, Argentina): potential implications for local food webs. Biol. Invasions 13:15211532.
  • Irving, A. D. and S. D. Connell. 2006. Predicting understorey structure from the presence and composition of canopies: an assembly rule for macroalgae. Oecologia 148:491502.
  • Jaspars, M., and F. Folmer. 2013. Sea vegetables for health: report prepared for the Food and Health Innovation Service. University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
  • Jentsch, A., J. Kreyling, and C. Beierkuhnlein. 2007. A new generation of climate-change experiments: events, not trends. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5:365374.
  • Johnson, M. and P. Hart. 2001. Preliminary report of the coastal fisheries around the coasts of the British Isles 1950–1999. Pp. 135140 in D. Zeller, R. Watson and D. Pauly, eds. Fisheries impacts on North Atlantic ecosystems: catch, effort and national/regional datasets. Fisheries Centre Research Report, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
  • Johnston, C. S., R. G. Jones, and R. D. Hunt. 1977. A seasonal carbon budget for a laminarian population in a Scottish sea-loch. Helgol. Mar. Res. 30:527545.
  • Jones, N. S., and J. M. Kain. 1967. Subtidal algal colonisation following the removal of Echinus. Helgol. Wiss. Meeres. 15:460466.
  • Jones, C. G., J. H. Lawton, and M. Shachak. 1994. Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos 69:373386.
  • Jones, C. G., J. H. Lawton, and M. Shachak. 1997. Positive and negative effects of organisms as physical ecosystem engineers. Ecology 78:19461957.
  • Kain, J. M. 1962. Aspects of the biology of Laminaria hyperborea I. vertical distribution. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 42:377385.
  • Kain, J. M. 1975a. Algal recolonisation on some cleared subtidal areas. J. Ecol. 63:739765.
  • Kain, J. M. 1975b. The biology of Laminaria hyperborea VII. Reproduction of the sporophyte. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 55:567582.
  • Kain, J. M. 1979. A view of the genus Laminaria. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 17:101161.
  • Kitching, J. A. and F. J. Ebling. 1961. The ecology of Lough Ine XI. The control of algae by Paracentrotus lividus. J. Anim. Ecol. 30:373383.
  • Kitching, J. A. and V. M. Thain. 1983. The ecological impact of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck) in Lough Ine, Ireland. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 300:513552.
  • Koch, M., G. Bowes, C. Ross, and X.-H. Zhang. 2013. Climate change and ocean acidification effects on seagrasses and marine macroalgae. Glob. Change Biol. 19:103132.
  • Konar, B. and J. A. Estes. 2003. The stability of boundary regions between kelp beds and deforested areas. Ecology 84:174185.
  • Kroeker, K. J., R. L. Kordas, R. Crim, I. E. Hendriks, L. Ramajo, G. S. Singh, et al. 2013. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming. Glob. Change Biol. 19:18841896.
  • Krumhansl, K. and R. E. Scheibling. 2011. Detrital production in Nova Scotian kelp beds: patterns and processes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 421:6782.
  • Krumhansl, K. and R. E. Scheibling. 2012. Production and fate of kelp detritus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 467:281302.
  • Krumhansl, K. A., J. M. Lee, and R. E. Scheibling. 2011. Grazing damage and encrustation by an invasive bryozoan reduce the ability of kelps to withstand breakage by waves. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 407:1218.
  • Leinaas, H. and H. Christie. 1996. Effects of removing sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis): stability of the barren state and succession of kelp forest recovery in the east Atlantic. Oecologia 105:524536.
  • Lima, F. P. and D. S. Wethey. 2012. Three decades of high-resolution coastal sea surface temperatures reveal more than warming. Nat. Commun. 3:704.
  • Ling, S. D. 2008. Range expansion of a habitat-modifying species leads to loss of taxonomic diversity: a new and impoverished reef state. Oecologia 156:883894.
  • Ling, S. D., C. R. Johnson, S. D. Frusher, and K. R. Ridgway. 2009. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106:2234122345.
  • Lorentsen, S.-H., K. Sjøtun, and D. Grémillet. 2010. Multi-trophic consequences of kelp harvest. Biol. Conserv. 143:20542062.
  • Lovas, S. M. and A. Torum. 2001. Effect of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea upon sand dune erosion and water particle velocities. Coast. Eng. 44:3763.
  • Lozano, I., R. J. N. Devoy, W. May, and U. Andersen. 2004. Storminess and vulnerability along the Atlantic coastlines of Europe: analysis of storm records and of a greenhouse gases induced climate scenario. Mar. Geol. 210:205225.
  • Maggs, C. A. 1986. Scottish marine macroalgae: a distributional checklist, biogeographical analysis and literature abstract. Report for the Nature Conservancy Council.
  • Mann, K. H. 1973. Seaweeds: their productivity and strategy for growth. Science 182:975981.
  • Mann, K. H. 1977. Destruction of kelp-beds by sea urchins: a cyclical phenomenon or irreversible degradation? Helgoland wiss Meeresunters 30:455467.
  • Mann, K. H. 2000. Ecology of coastal waters. Blackwell, Malden, MA.
  • MCCIP. 2012. Marine climate change impacts knowledge gaps. P. J. Buckley, S. D. Dye, M. Frost and C. J. Wallace, eds. Summary Paper, MCCIP, Lowestoft, Pp. 8.
  • Moore, P. G. 1971. The nematode fauna associated with holdfasts of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) in northeast Britain. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 51:589604.
  • Moore, P. G. 1973. The kelp fauna of northeast Britain. II. Multivariate classification: turbidity as an ecological factor. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 13:127163.
  • Mork, M. 1996. Wave attenuation due to bottom vegetation. Pp. 371382 in J. Grue, B. Gjevik and J. E. Weber, eds. Waves and nonlinear processes in hydrodynamics. Kluwer Academic Publishing, Oslo.
  • Moy, F. E. and H. Christie. 2012. Large-scale shift from sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) to ephemeral algae along the south and west coast of Norway. Mar. Biol. Res. 8:309321.
  • Muller, R., T. Laepple, I. Bartsch, and C. Wiencke. 2009. Impact of ocean warming on the distribution of seaweeds in polar and cold-temperate waters. Bot. Mar. 52:617638.
  • Neori, A., T. Chopin, M. Troell, A. H. Buschmann, G. P. Kraemer, C. Halling, et al. 2004. Integrated aquaculture: rationale, evolution and state of the art emphasizing seaweed biofiltration in modern mariculture. Aquaculture 231:361391.
  • New, M., D. Liverman, H. Schroder, and K. Anderson. 2011. Four degrees and beyond: the potential for a global temperature increase of four degrees and its implications. Philos. Trans. R Soc. Lond. A 369:619.
  • Norderhaug, K. M. and H. C. Christie. 2009. Sea urchin grazing and kelp re-vegetation in the NE Atlantic. Mar. Biol. Res. 5:515528.
  • Norderhaug, K. M., S. Fredriksen, and K. Nygaard. 2003. Trophic importance of Laminaria hyperborea to kelp forest consumers and the importance of bacterial degradation to food quality. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 255:135144.
  • Norderhaug, K. M., J. D. Christensen, J. H. Fossa, and S. Fredriksen. 2005. Fish-macrofauna interactions in a kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) forest. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 85:12791286.
  • Norton, T. A. 1969. Growth form and environment in Saccorhiza polyschides. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 49:10251045.
  • Norton, T. A. 1978. The factors influencing the distribution of Saccorhiza polyschides in the region of Lough Ine. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 58:527536.
  • O'Sullivan, D. and M. Emmerson. 2011. Marine reserve designation, trophic cascades and altered community dynamics. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 440:115125.
  • Parke, M. 1948. Studies on British Laminariaceae. I. Growth in Laminaria Saccharina (L.) Lamour. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 3:651709.
  • Pedersen, M. F., P. A. Stæhr, T. Wernberg, and M. S. Thomsen. 2005. Biomass dynamics of exotic Sargassum muticum and native Halidrys siliquosa in Limfjorden, Denmark – implications of species replacements on turnover rates. Aquat. Bot. 83:3147.
  • Pedersen, M. F., L. B. Nejrup, S. Fredriksen, H. Christie, and K. M. Norderhaug. 2012. Effects of wave exposure on population structure, demography, biomass and productivity of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 451:4560.
  • Philippart, C. J. M., R. Anadon, R. Danovaro, J. W. Dippner, K. F. Drinkwater, S. J. Hawkins, et al. 2011. Impacts of climate change on European marine ecosystems: observations, expectations and indicators. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 400:5269.
  • Poloczanska, E. S., C. J. Brown, W. J. Sydeman, W. Kiessling, D. S. Schoeman, P. J. Moore, et al. 2013. Global imprint of climate change on marine life. Nat. Clim. Chang. doi:10.1038/nclimate1958.
  • Raffaelli, D. G. and S. J. Hawkins. 1996. Intertidal ecology. Kluwer academic, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
  • Raybaud, V., G. Beaugrand, E. Goberville, G. Delebecq, C. Destombe, M. Valero, et al. 2013. Decline in kelp in west Europe and climate. PLoS ONE 8:e66044.
  • Reed, D. C., A. Rassweiler, and K. K. Arkema. 2008. Biomass rather than growth rate determines variation in net primary production by giant kelp. Ecology 89:24932505.
  • Reed, D. C., A. Rassweiler, M. H. Carr, K. C. Cavanaugh, D. P. Malone, and D. A. Siegel. 2011. Wave disturbance overwhelms top-down and bottom-up control of primary production in California kelp forests. Ecology 92:21082116.
  • Rees, S. E., L. D. Rodwell, M. J. Attrill, M. C. Austen, and S. C. Mangi. 2010. The value of marine biodiversity to the leisure and recreation industry and its application to marine spatial planning. Mar. Policy 34:868875.
  • Richardson, A. J. and D. S. Schoeman. 2004. Climate impact on plankton ecosystems in the northeast Atlantic. Science 305:16091612.
  • Rosman, J. H., J. R. Koseff, S. G. Monismith, and J. Grover. 2007. A field investigation into the effects of a kelp forest (Macrocystis pyrifera) on coastal hydrodynamics and transport. J. Geophys. Res. 112:C02016.
  • Russell, B. D., J.-A. I. Thompson, L. J. Falkenberg, and S. D. Connell. 2009. Synergistic effects of climate change and local stressors: CO2 and nutrient-driven change in subtidal rocky habitats. Glob. Change Biol. 15:21532162.
  • Sanderson, J. C., M. J. Dring, K. Davidson, and M. S. Kelly. 2012. Culture, yield and bioremediation potential of Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) Weber & Mohr and Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus) C.E. Lane, C. Mayes, Druehl & G.W. Saunders adjacent to fish farm cages in northwest Scotland. Aquaculture 354–355:128135.
  • Sasaki, H., A. Flores-Moya, E. C. Henry, D. G. Müller, and H. Kawai. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of Phyllariaceae, Halosiphonaceae and Tilopteridales (Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 40:123134.
  • Serisawa, Y., Z. Imoto, T. Ishikawa, and M. Ohno. 2004. Decline of the Ecklonia cava population associated with increased seawater temperatures in Tosa Bay, southern Japan. Fish. Sci. 70:189191.
  • Simkanin, C., A. M. Power, A. Myers, D. McGrath, A. Southward, N. Mieszkowska, et al. 2005. Using historical data to detect temporal changes in the abundances of intertidal species on Irish shores. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 85:13291340.
  • Smale, D. A. 2010. Monitoring marine macroalgae: the influence of spatial scale on the usefulness of biodiversity surrogates. Divers. Distrib. 16:985995.
  • Smale, D. A. and T. Wernberg. 2013. Extreme climatic event drives range contraction of a habitat-forming species. Proc. Biol. Sci. 280:20122829.
  • Smale, D. A., G. A. Kendrick, and T. Wernberg. 2010. Assemblage turnover and taxonomic sufficiency of subtidal macroalgae at multiple spatial scales. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 384:7686.
  • Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, et al. 2007. Contribution of working group 1 to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U.K. and New York.
  • Southward, A. J., S. J. Hawkins, and M. T. Burrows. 1995. Seventy years’ observations of changes in distribution and abundance of zooplankton and intertidal organisms in the western English Channel in relation to rising sea temperature. J. Therm. Biol 20:127155.
  • Steneck, R. S. 1998. Human influences on coastal ecosystems: does overfishing create trophic cascades? Trends Ecol. Evol. 13:429430.
  • Steneck, R. S., M. H. Graham, B. J. Bourque, D. Corbett, J. M. Erlandson, J. A. Estes, et al. 2002. Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environ. Conserv. 29:436459.
  • Stewart, H. L., J. P. Fram, D. C. Reed, S. L. Williams, M. A. Brzezinski, S. MacIntyre, et al. 2009. Differences in growth, morphology and tissue carbon and nitrogen of Macrocystis pyrifera within and at the outer edge of a giant kelp forest in California, USA. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 375:101112.
  • Sunday, J. M., A. E. Bates, and N. K. Dulvy. 2012. Thermal tolerance and the global redistribution of animals. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2:686690.
  • Tallis, H. 2009. Kelp and rivers subsidize rocky intertidal communities in the Pacific Northwest (USA). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 389:8596.
  • Terazono, Y., Y. Nakamura, Z. Imoto, and M. Hiraoka. 2012. Fish response to expanding tropical Sargassum beds on the temperate coast of Japan. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 464:209220.
  • Thomsen, M. S., T. Wernberg, A. Altieri, F. Tuya, D. Gulbransen, K. J. McGlathery, et al. 2010. Habitat cascades: the conceptual context and global relevance of facilitation cascades via habitat formation and modification. Integr. Comp. Biol. 50:158175.
  • Troell, M., A. Joyce, T. Chopin, A. Neori, A. H. Buschmann, and J.-G. Fang. 2009. Ecological engineering in aquaculture – potential for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in marine offshore systems. Aquaculture 297:19.
  • Türker, U., O. Yagci, and M. S. Kabdaşlı. 2006. Analysis of coastal damage of a beach profile under the protection of emergent vegetation. Ocean Eng. 33:810828.
  • Tuya, F., E. Cacabelos, P. Duarte, D. Jacinto, J. J. Castro, T. Silva, et al. 2012. Patterns of landscape and assemblage structure along a latitudinal gradient in ocean climate. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 466:919.
  • Vanderklift, M. A. and T. Wernberg. 2008. Detached kelps from distant sources are a food subsidy for sea urchins. Oecologia 157:327335.
  • Vásquez, J. 2008. Production, use and fate of Chilean brown seaweeds: re-sources for a sustainable fishery. J. Appl. Phycol. 20:457467.
  • Vea, J. and E. Ask. 2011. Creating a sustainable commercial harvest of Laminaria hyperborea, in Norway. J. Appl. Phycol. 23:489494.
  • Vetter, E. W. and P. K. Dayton. 1998. Macrofaunal communities within and adjacent to a detritus-rich submarine canyon system. Deep Sea Res. Part 2 Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 45:2554.
  • Voerman, S. E., E. Llera, and J. M. Rico. 2013. Climate driven changes in subtidal kelp forest communities in NW Spain. Mar. Environ. Res. 90:119127.
  • Walker, F. T. 1953. Distribution of Laminariaceae around Scotland. J. Conseil 20:160166.
  • Walker, F. T. 1956. Periodicity of Laminariaceae around Scotland. Nature 177:1246.
  • Walker, F. T. and W. D. Richardson. 1955. An ecological investigation of Laminaria cloustoni (L. hyperborea Fosl.) around Scotland. J. Ecol. 43:2638.
  • Walker, F. T. and W. D. Richardson. 1956. The Laminariaceae off North Shapinsay, Orkney Islands; changes from 1947 to 1955. J. Mar. Res. 15:123133.
  • Wargacki, A. J., E. Leonard, M. N. Win, D. D. Regitsky, C. N. S. Santos, P. B. Kim, et al. 2012. An engineered microbial platform for direct biofuel production from brown macroalgae. Science 335:308313.
  • Weisse, R., H. Von Storch, and F. Feser. 2005. Northeast Atlantic and North Sea storminess as simulated by a regional climate model during 1958–2001 and comparison with observations. J. Clim. 18:465479.
  • Wernberg, T. and N. Goldberg. 2008. Short-term temporal dynamics of algal species in a subtidal kelp bed in relation to changes in environmental conditions and canopy biomass. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 76:265272.
  • Wernberg, T., G. A. Kendrick, and B. D. Toohey. 2005. Modification of the physical environment by an Ecklonia radiata (Laminariales) canopy and its implications to associated foliose algae. Aquat. Ecol. 39:419430.
  • Wernberg, T., M. A. Vanderklift, J. How, and P. S. Lavery. 2006. Export of detached macroalgae from reefs to adjacent seagrass beds. Oecologia 147:692701.
  • Wernberg, T., M. S. Thomsen, F. Tuya, G. A. Kendrick, P. A. Staehr, and B. D. Toohey. 2010. Decreasing resilience of kelp beds along a latitudinal temperature gradient: potential implications for a warmer future. Ecol. Lett. 13:685694.
  • Wernberg, T., B. D. Russell, P. J. Moore, S. D. Ling, D. A. Smale, M. Coleman, et al. 2011. Impacts of climate change in a global hotspot for temperate marine biodiversity and ocean warming. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 400:716.
  • Wernberg, T., D. A. Smale, and M. S. Thomsen. 2012. A decade of climate change experiments on marine organisms: procedures, patterns and problems. Glob. Change Biol. 18:14911498.
  • Wernberg, T., D. A. Smale, F. Tuya, M. S. Thomsen, T. J. Langlois, T. de Bettignies, et al. 2013. An extreme climatic event alters marine ecosystem structure in a global biodiversity hotspot. Nat. Clim. Chang. 3:7882.
  • White, J. W., L. W. Botsford, M. L. Baskett, L. A. K. Barnett, R. J. Barr, and A. Hastings. 2011. Linking models with monitoring data for assessing performance of no-take marine reserves. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9:390399.
  • Woodward, F. N. 1951. The Scottish Seaweed Research Association. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 29:719725.