Appendix S1. Theory of adaptive genetic change in novel environments.

Appendix S2. Chromosome investigations of Arctotheca populifolia.

Table S1. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Arctotheca populifolia (= 348) and Petrorhagia nanteuilii (= 377) including locus name, GenBank accession number, primer sequences, repeat motif, number of alleles and allele size range.

Table S2. Expected heterozygosity (HE) estimates from microsatellite data for species within the Asteraceae and Caryophyllaceae families. Effective number equivalents (2D) have been calculated. For Asteraceae, estimates were included for one species per genus (= 28). For Caryophyllaceae, all estimates identified in the literature were included (= 8). The number of loci (L), samples (S) and total number of individuals (I) are given for each study.

Figure S1. (A,B) Plant height (log10 transformed) of Arctotheca populifolia (A) and Petrorhagia nanteuilii (B) measured from herbarium specimens sampled in the native range between 1891–2003 and 1848–1985, respectively. For A. populifolia, values do not change significantly over this time period (weighted general linear model; R= 0.003; Fyear1,52 = 0.15; = 0.70). For P. nanteuilii, plant height decreased through time (weighted general linear model; R= 0.05; Fyear1,85 = 3.98; Pyear = 0.049).

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