We analyzed variations in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) in the widespread herbaceous species Hosta sieboldiana and Hosta albomarginata across large portions of their geographic ranges in the Japanese archipelago. Our objective was to compare the phylogeographic histories and phylogeographic structures of the two congeneric species in the Japanese archipelago. The location of the study is Japanese archipelago. We sequenced 1380 bp of noncoding cpDNA from 45 populations of H. sieboldiana (n = 362) and 55 populations of H. albomarginata (n = 436) to assess genetic variations within and among populations across almost the entire distributions of the species in Japan. Extant patterns of geographic structure were analyzed using statistical parsimony networks and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). We also used Monmonier's algorithm to detect genetic barriers between regions. Relationships between the populations were examined using a neighbor-joining (NJ) method. Four haplotypes were found for H. sieboldiana, whereas eight haplotypes were identified for H. albomarginata. Total genetic haplotype diversity (hT) and within-population haplotype diversity (hS) for H. sieboldiana were 0.352 and 0.040, respectively, while the values for H. albomarginata were 0.529 and 0.085, respectively. The population differentiations (GST) for H. sieboldiana and H. albomarginata were 0.839 and 0.886, respectively. The SAMOVA analysis revealed two clusters in H. sieboldiana and four clusters in H. albomarginata. Differentiations between and among the clusters were supported by the BARRIER analysis and the NJ tree. We detected differences in the population genetic structure between the two species. We found that H. sieboldiana had lower haplotype diversity than H. albomarginata. These results may be partially explained by the difference in ecological habitats and geographic distributions between the species. Hosta albomarginata is more widely distributed than H. sieboldiana in East Asia including Russia, and this large distribution range would enable more chances to intraspecific gene flow.