Projected marine climate change: effects on copepod oxidative status and reproduction

Authors

  • Anu Vehmaa,

    1. ARONIA Coastal Zone Research Team, Novia University of Applied Sciences & Åbo Akademi University, Ekenäs, Finland
    2. Tvärminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, Hanko, Finland
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Hedvig Hogfors,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
    • Correspondence

      Hedvig Hogfors, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: +46 704 222 588; Fax: +46 8 15 84 17; E-mail: hedvig.hog@gmail.com

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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Elena Gorokhova,

    1. Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • Andreas Brutemark,

    1. ARONIA Coastal Zone Research Team, Novia University of Applied Sciences & Åbo Akademi University, Ekenäs, Finland
    2. Tvärminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, Hanko, Finland
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  • Towe Holmborn,

    1. Calluna AB, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • Jonna Engström-Öst

    1. ARONIA Coastal Zone Research Team, Novia University of Applied Sciences & Åbo Akademi University, Ekenäs, Finland
    2. Tvärminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, Hanko, Finland
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Abstract

Zooplankton are an important link between primary producers and fish. Therefore, it is crucial to address their responses when predicting effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. For realistic community-level predictions, several biotic and abiotic climate-related variables should be examined in combination. We studied the combined effects of ocean acidification and global warming predicted for year 2100 with toxic cyanobacteria on the calanoid copepod, Acartia bifilosa. Acidification together with higher temperature reduced copepod antioxidant capacity. Higher temperature also decreased egg viability, nauplii development, and oxidative status. Exposure to cyanobacteria and its toxin had a negative effect on egg production but, a positive effect on oxidative status and egg viability, giving no net effects on viable egg production. Additionally, nauplii development was enhanced by the presence of cyanobacteria, which partially alleviated the otherwise negative effects of increased temperature and decreased pH on the copepod recruitment. The interactive effects of temperature, acidification, and cyanobacteria on copepods highlight the importance of testing combined effects of climate-related factors when predicting biological responses.

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