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The magnitude of local adaptation under genotype-dependent dispersal
Article first published online: 30 OCT 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ecology and Evolution
Volume 3, Issue 14, pages 4722–4735, November 2013
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(14): 4722–4735
- Issue published online: 25 NOV 2013
- Article first published online: 30 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 6 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Received: 1 JUL 2013
- David and Lucille Packard Foundation
- Howard Hughes Medical Institute
- Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
- Fitness-associated dispersal;
- genetic load;
- habitat choice;
- habitat selection;
- local adaptation;
- matching habitat choice;
- migration-selection balance;
- natural selection
Dispersal moves individuals from patches where their immediate ancestors were successful to sites where their genotypes are untested. As a result, dispersal generally reduces fitness, a phenomenon known as “migration load.” The strength of migration load depends on the pattern of dispersal and can be dramatically lessened or reversed when individuals move preferentially toward patches conferring higher fitness. Evolutionary ecologists have long modeled nonrandom dispersal, focusing primarily on its effects on population density over space, the maintenance of genetic variation, and reproductive isolation. Here, we build upon previous work by calculating how the extent of local adaptation and the migration load are affected when individuals differ in their dispersal rate in a genotype-dependent manner that alters their match to their environment. Examining a one-locus, two-patch model, we show that local adaptation occurs through a combination of natural selection and adaptive dispersal. For a substantial portion of parameter space, adaptive dispersal can be the predominant force generating local adaptation. Furthermore, genetic load may be largely averted with adaptive dispersal whenever individuals move before selective deaths occur. Thus, to understand the mechanisms driving local adaptation, biologists must account for the extent and nature of nonrandom, genotype-dependent dispersal, and the potential for adaptation via spatial sorting of genotypes.