Deceptive single-locus taxonomy and phylogeography: Wolbachia-associated divergence in mitochondrial DNA is not reflected in morphology and nuclear markers in a butterfly species
Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Ecology and Evolution
Volume 3, Issue 16, pages 5167–5176, December 2013
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(16): 5167–5176
- Issue published online: 22 DEC 2013
- Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 18 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Received: 6 JUN 2013
- NSERC Canada
- ERC grant ‘EMARES’
- NERC, Carlsberg Foundation (Copenhagen)
- Academy of Finland. Grant Number: 129811
- Kone Foundation
- Coenonympha california ;
- Coenonympha nipisiquit ;
- Coenonympha tullia ;
- cryptic diversity;
- incipient species;
The satyrine butterfly Coenonympha tullia (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) displays a deep split between two mitochondrial clades, one restricted to northern Alberta, Canada, and the other found throughout Alberta and across North America. We confirm this deep divide and test hypotheses explaining its phylogeographic structure. Neither genitalia morphology nor nuclear gene sequence supports cryptic species as an explanation, instead indicating differences between nuclear and mitochondrial genome histories. Sex-biased dispersal is unlikely to cause such mito-nuclear differences; however, selective sweeps by reproductive parasites could have led to this conflict. About half of the tested samples were infected by Wolbachia bacteria. Using multilocus strain typing for three Wolbachia genes, we show that the divergent mitochondrial clades are associated with two different Wolbachia strains, supporting the hypothesis that the mito-nuclear differences resulted from selection on the mitochondrial genome due to selective sweeps by Wolbachia strains.