The case for character displacement in plants
Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014
© 2014 The Author. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ecology and Evolution
Volume 4, Issue 6, pages 862–875, March 2014
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2014; 4(6):862–875
- Issue published online: 18 MAR 2014
- Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 10 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 28 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Received: 4 OCT 2013
- Jefferson Scholars Foundation
- University of Virginia Library Open Access Fund
- 1983. Ecological combining ability and competitive combining ability in plants: toward a general evolutionary theory of coexistence in systems of competition. Am. Nat. 122:707–731.
- 2005. Ecological divergence among five co-occurring species of old-field goldenrods. Plant Ecol. 177:43–56. , , , and .
- 2007. Location-specific sympatric morphological divergence as a possible response to species interactions in West Virginia Plethodon salamander communities. J. Anim. Ecol. 76:289–295. , , and .
- 1978. Population genetics of mixtures. Pp. 233–252 in J. R. Wilson, ed. Plant relations in pastures. C.S.I.R.O., East Melbourne,Vic.
- 2011. A fundamental, eco-hydrological basis for niche segregation in plant communities. New Phytol. 189:253–258. , , , , , and .
- 1985. Patterns of character divergence and the evolution of reproductive ecotypes of Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae). Evolution 39:733–752.
- 1986. Reproductive interactions between sympatric Dalechampia species: are natural assemblages “random” or organized? Ecology 67:522–533.
- 1994. Floral Character Displacement generates assemblage structure of western Australian Triggerplants. Ecology 75:315–329. , , and .
- 1982. The evolutionary consequences of interspecific competition. Adv. Ecol. Res. 12:127–187.
- 2010. Niche complementarity due to plasticity in resource use: plant partitioning of chemical N forms. Ecology 91:3252–3260. , , , and .
- 2012. Morphological response to competition for light in the clonal Trifolium repens (Fabaceae). Am. J. Bot. 99:646–654. , , , and .
- 1986. The present status of the competitive exclusion principle. Trends Ecol. Evol. 1:25–28.
- 1956. Character displacement. Syst. Zool. 5:49–64. , and .
- 2012. Effects of competition on phylogenetic signal and phenotypic plasticity in plant functional traits. Ecology 93:S126–S137. , and .
- 2003. Phenotypic plasticity and interactions among plants. Ecology 84:1115–1128. , , and .
- 2000. Competition for pollination influences selection on floral traits of Ipomopsis aggregata. Evolution 54:1546–1557.
- 1916. Plant succession: an analysis of the development of vegetation. The Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.
- 1984. Branching patterns in columnar cacti. Pp. 201–236 in N. S. Margaris, M. Arianoutsou-Farragitaki and W. C. Oechel, eds. Being alive on land. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.
- 1991. Niche theory and plant growth form. Vegetatio 97:39–55.
- 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1310.
- 1980. Diversity and the coevolution of competitors, or the ghost of competition past. Oikos 35:131–138.
- 1899. The ecological relations of the vegetation on the sand dunes of Lake Michigan. [Ph.D. thesis], The Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL.
- 1991. Root profiles and competition between the invasive exotic perennial, Carpobrotus edulis, and two native shrub species in California coastal scrub. Am. J. Bot. 78:885–894. , and .
- 2012. Using phylogenetic trees to test for character displacement: a model and an example from a desert mammal community. Ecology 93:S44–S51. , , , , and .
- 2005. Ecological and community-wide character displacement: the next generation. Ecol. Lett. 8:875–894. , and .
- 2008. Plant carbon partitioning below ground in the presence of different neighboring species. Soil Biol. Biochem. 40:2266–2272. , , , and .
- 1999. Pollinator-mediated competition, reproductive character displacement, and the evolution of selfing in Arenaria uniflora (Caryophyllaceae). Evolution 53:1723–1733. , and .
- 1981. Competition and coexistence in a North Carolina grassland: I. Patterns in undisturbed vegetation. J. Ecol. 69:825–841. , and .
- 1926. The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 53:7–26.
- 1975. The classic case of character displacement. Evol. Biol. 8:237.
- 1994. Ecological character displacement. Science 266:746–747.
- 2006. Evolution of character displacement in Darwin's finches. Science 313:224–226. , and .
- 2000. Comparative analysis of character displacement and spatial adaptations as illustrated by the evolution of Dalechampia blossoms. Am. Nat. 156:S17–S34. , , and .
- 2007. Sympatry with the devil: reproductive interference could hamper species coexistence. J. Anim. Ecol. 76:633–642. , , and .
- 2013. Reinforcement in plants. New Phytol. 197:1095–1103.
- 2011. Identification of two genes causing reinforcement in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii. Nature 469:411–415. , and .
- 2012. Pollinator-mediated selection on flower color allele drives reinforcement. Science 335:1090–1092. , and .
- 2012. Molecular signatures of selection on reproductive character displacement of flower color in Phlox drummondii. Evolution 66:469–485. , , and .
- 2005. Neutral theory in community ecology and the hypothesis of functional equivalence. Funct. Ecol. 19:166–172.
- 2009. An invasive dandelion unilaterally reduces the reproduction of a native congener through competition for pollination. Oecologia 159:559–569. , , , and .
- 1989. Competition. Chapman and Hall, London, U.K.
- 1978. Reproductive isolation in the Mimulus guttatus M. nasutus complex. Am. Midl. Nat. 100:269–276. , and .
- 2001. Adaptive evolution of plastic foraging responses in a clonal plant. Ecology 82:3309–3319. , and .
- 1983. The measurement of selection on correlated characters. Evolution 37:1210–1226. , and .
- 2012. Coevolution between invasive and native plants driven by chemical competition and soil biota. PNAS 109:11240–11245.
- 2013. Species invasion alters local adaptation to soil communities in a native plant. Ecology 94:32–40.
- 2009. Evolutionary limits ameliorate the negative impact of an invasive plant. PNAS 106:15362–15367. , , , and .
- 2010. Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management. Evol. Appl. 3:169–178. , and .
- 1970. Reinforcement of reproductive isolation: plants versus animals. Am. Nat. 104:571–581.
- 1985. Reproductive character displacement in Phlox. Evolution 39:1275–1281.
- 1985. Reproductive Biology of Apiaceae. II. Cryptic specialization and floral evolution in Thaspium and Zizia. Am. J. Bot. 72:231–247. , and .
- 1968. An experimental evaluation of premating isolation in the Hyla ewingi complex (Anura: Hylidae). Evolution 22:659–663. , and .
- 2000. Ecological character displacement and the study of adaptation. PNAS 97:5693–5695.
- 2009. Lizards in an evolutionary tree: ecology and adaptive radiation of anoles. Univ. of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
- 1999. Differential colonization success and asymmetrical interactions between two lizard species. Ecology 80:252–258. , and .
- 1981. Evolution of competition between two species of annual plants. Evolution 35:975–987. , and .
- 2011. Evaluating the targets of selection during character displacement. Evolution 65:2946–2958. , and .
- 2006. Ecological divergence associated with mating system causes nearly complete reproductive isolation between sympatric Mimulus species. Evolution 61:68–82. , and .
- 1963. Animal species and evolution. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, U.K.
- 1970. Populations, species, and evolution. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, U.K.
- 1990. Spatiotemporal differences in 15N uptake and the organization of an old-field plant community. Ecology 71:1126–1132. , , and .
- 2007. Post-invasion evolution of native plant populations: a test of biological resilience. Oikos 116:1493–1500. , and .
- 2010. Hybridization of invasive Phragmites australis with a native subspecies in North America. Biol. Invasions 12:103–111. , , and .
- 2007. Plant uptake of inorganic and organic nitrogen: neighbor identity matters. Ecology 88:1832–1840. , , and .
- 2003. Character displacement in style length between pollinator-sharing Clerodendrum trichotomum and C. izuinsulare (Verbenaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 243:31–38. , and .
- 2008. Functional significance of interspecific variation in Burmeistera flower morphology: evidence from nectar bat captures in Ecuador. Biotropica 40:332–337.
- 2007. Character displacement among bat-pollinated flowers of the genus Burmeistera: analysis of mechanism, process and pattern. Proc. Biol. Sci. 274:2731–2737. , and .
- 2006. Macroevolutionary data suggest a role for reinforcement in pollination system shifts. Evolution 60:1596–1601. , , and .
- 1971. Fundamentals of ecology. 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA.
- 2009. Character displacement: ecological and reproductive responses to a common evolutionary problem. Q. Rev. Biol. 84:253–276. , and .
- 2012. Evolution's wedge. Univ. of California Press, Berkeley, CA. , and .
- 2001. Declining interspecific competition during character displacement: summoning the ghost of competition past. Evol. Ecol. Res. 3:209–220. , and .
- 2007. Character displacement: in situ evolution of novel phenotypes or sorting of pre-existing variation? J. Evol. Biol. 20:448–459. , and .
- 2000a. Ecological character displacement in adaptive radiation. Am. Nat. 156:S4–S16.
- 2000b. The ecology of adaptive radiation. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY.
- 1992. Ecological character displacement and speciation in sticklebacks. Am. Nat. 140:85–108. , and .
- 1995. Quantitative genetics of response to competitors in Nemophila menziesii: a field experiment. Genetics 139:397–406. , , , and .
- 2004. Plant coexistence and the niche. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19:605–611.
- 2008. Experimental evidence that selection favors character displacement in the ivyleaf morning glory. Am. Nat. 171:1–9. , and .
- 1998. Partitioning of pollinators during flowering in an African Acacia community. Ecology 79:2808–2827. , , and .
- 2013. Ecological character displacement: glass mostly full or empty? Trends Ecol. Evol. 28:402–408. , and .
- 2008. Native and introduced jewelweeds of the Northeast. Northeast Nat. 15:159–176. , and .
- 2008. Comparative demography of three coexisting Acer species in gaps and under closed canopy. J. Veg. Sci. 19:127–138. , , , , , , et al.
- 1991. Coevolution among competitors. Pp. 63–109 in D. J. Futuyma and J. Antonovics, eds. Oxford surveys in evolutionary biology. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U.K. , and .
- 2011. Interactions among plants and evolution. J. Ecol. 99:729–740. , , , and .
- 1981. Tests of resource competition theory using four species of Lake Michigan algae. Ecology 62:802–815.
- 1982. Resource competition and community structure. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ.
- 1989. The growth, distribution and neighbour relationships of Trifolium repens in a permanent pasture. V. The coevolution of competitors. J. Ecol. 77:717–733.
- 2000. Interspecific variation in seed mass and the co-existence of conifer species: a null model test. Evol. Ecol. Res. 2:353–363. , , and .
- 2000. Environmental distribution of four Carex species (Cyperaceae) in an old-growth forest. Am. J. Bot. 87:1507–1516. , , and .
- 1978. Reproductive character displacement and floral diversity in Solanum section Androceras. Syst. Bot. 3:77–86.
- 2009. Biodiversity maintenance mechanisms differ between native and novel exotic-dominated communities. Ecol. Lett. 12:432–442. , , , , and .