Estimation of evapotranspiration over the terrestrial ecosystems in China

Authors

  • Xianglan Li,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Beijing Normal University, Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    2. College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
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  • Shunlin Liang,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Beijing Normal University, Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    2. College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
    3. Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
    • Correspondence to: Shunlin Liang, Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. Wenping Yuan, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. E-mail: sliang@umd.edu; wenpingyuancn@yahoo.com

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  • Wenping Yuan,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Beijing Normal University, Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    2. College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
    • Correspondence to: Shunlin Liang, Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. Wenping Yuan, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. E-mail: sliang@umd.edu; wenpingyuancn@yahoo.com

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  • Guirui Yu,

    1. Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Synthesis Research Center of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Xiao Cheng,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Beijing Normal University, Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    2. College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
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  • Yang Chen,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Beijing Normal University, Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    2. College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
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  • Tianbao Zhao,

    1. Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Jinming Feng,

    1. College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Zhuguo Ma,

    1. Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Mingguo Ma,

    1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China
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  • Shaomin Liu,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
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  • Jiquan Chen,

    1. Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA
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  • Changliang Shao,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Shenggong Li,

    1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Xudong Zhang,

    1. Institute of Forestry Research, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China
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  • Zhiqiang Zhang,

    1. College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China
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  • Ge Sun,

    1. Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center, Southern Research Station, Raleigh, NC, USA
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  • Shiping Chen,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Takeshi Ohta,

    1. Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
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  • Andrej Varlagin,

    1. A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
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  • Akira Miyata,

    1. National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan
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  • Kentaro Takagi,

    1. Teshio Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Teshio, Japan
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  • Nobuko Saiqusa,

    1. Center for Global Environmental Research National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
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  • Tomomichi Kato

    1. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
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ABSTRACT

Quantifying regional evapotranspiration (ET) and environmental constraints are particularly important for understanding water and carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. However, a large uncertainty in the regional estimation of ET still remains for the terrestrial ecosystems in China. This study used ET measurements of 34 eddy covariance sites within China and adjacent regions to examine the performance of the revised Remote Sensing-Penman Monteith (RS-PM) model over various ecosystem types including forests, grasslands, wetlands and croplands. No significant systematic error was found in the revised RS-PM model predictions, which explained 61% of the ET variations at all of the validation sites. Regional patterns of ET at a spatial resolution of 10 × 10 km were quantified using a meteorology dataset from 753 meteorological stations, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis products and satellite data such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) leaf area index. ET decreased from the southeast of China toward the northwest. Relatively high ET values were found in the southern China such as Yunnan, Hainan, Fujian and Guangdong Provinces, whereas low ET values occurred in northwestern China such as in the Xinjiang autonomous region. On average, the annual ET presented an increasing trend during the 1982–2009, with relatively low ET in 1985, 1993, 1997, 2000 and 2009. We found that the mean annual ET was higher than world average, ranging spatially between 484 and 521 mm yr−1, with a mean value of 500 mm yr−1, which accounted for approximately 5·6–8·3% of the world's total land-surface ET. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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