We have previously described the derivation of M1/70, a hybrid myeloma line secreting monoclonal rat anti-mouse cell surface antibody (Springer, T., Galfre, G., Secher, D. S. and Milstein, C, Eur. J. Immunol. 1978. 8: 539). We have now investigated the cellular distribution of this antigen using a 125I-labeled anti-rat IgG indirect binding assay, the fluorescence-activated cell sorter, autoradiography and precipitation of cell surface molecules. Screening with a tumor cell panel showed strong reactivity with a macrophage-like line but no reactivity with B or T lymphoma lines. In normal tissues, M1/70 antigen was found to be present in small amounts on spleen and exudate granulocytes and a subpopulation of bone marrow cells, in moderate amounts on spleen and blood monocytes and expressed in much larger amounts on spleen histiocytes and peritoneal exudate macrophages. In contrast, M1/70 antigen was found to be absent from erythroid and lymphoid cells. M1/70 antibody precipitated two polypeptides of 190 000 and 105 000 mol. wt. which were present in much greater amounts on peritoneal exudate macrophages than on spleen cells. The expression on phagocytes of two other antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies M1/69 and M1/9.3 was also examined. Monocytes and granulocytes expressed large amounts of M1/69 and low amounts of M1/70 antigen, while in peritoneal exudate macrophages this pattern was dramatically reversed. M1/70 thus defines a differentiation antigen on mononuclear phagocytes and granulocytes, the expression of which is specifically increased during monocyte maturation. This antibody is the first to be described which recognizes a discrete molecule specific to phagocytes.