Oral administration to mice of ovalbumin (OVA), if given together with cholera toxin (CT) or its B subunit (CTB) prevented the hyporesponsiveness to OVA subsequently injected parenterally. Oral immunization with CT plus OVA or OVA plus CTB in fact primed the immune system, inducing a stronger response to a subsequent parenteral injection of OVA with complete Freund's adjuvant than in mice prefed only with OVA or with saline. Oral CT plus OVA also induced good serum IgG1 and IgA anti-OVA responses, with slightly (not significant) decreased IgG2a and IgG2b responses. Our in vivo findings agree well with earlier in vitro data from others, including CT inhibition of the Th1 CD4+ T cell subset and with CT effect on B cells (induction of LPS-stimulated IgM+ B cells to undergo increased switch differentiation to IgG1- and IgA-secreting cells).