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    Wüthrich, B., Schindler, C., Leuenberger, P. and Ackermann-Liebrich, U., Prevalence of atopy and pollinosis in the adult population of Switzerland (SAPALDIA study). Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 1995. 106: 149156.
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    Wills-Karp, M., Santeliz, J. and Karp, L., The germless theory of allergic disease: revisiting the hygiene hypothesis. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2001. 1: 6975.
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    Kay, A. B., Allergy and Allergic Diseases. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, 1997.
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    Niederberger, V., Niggemann, B., Kraft, D., Spitzauer, S. and Valenta, R., Evolution of IgM, IgE and IgG(1–4) antibody responses in early childhood monitored with recombinant allergen components: implications for class switch mechanisms. Eur. J. Immunol. 2002. 32: 576584.
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    Herz, U., Ahrens, B., Scheffold, A., Joachim, R., Radbruch, A. and Renz, H., Impact of in utero Th2 immunity on T cell deviation and subsequent immediate-type hypersensitivity in the neonate. Eur. J. Immunol. 2000. 30: 714718.
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    Noon, L. C. B., Prophylactic inoculation against hayfever. Lancet 1911. 1: 15721573.
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    Bousquet, J., Lockey, R. and Malling, H. J., Allergen immunotherapy: Therapeutic vaccines for allergic diseases. A WHO position paper. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1998. 102: 157164.
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    Donnelly, J. J., Ulmer, J. B., Shiver, J. W. and Liu, M. A., DNA vaccines. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1997. 15: 617648.
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    Gurunathan, S., Klinman, D. M. and Seder, R. A., DNA vaccines: immunology, application, and optimization. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2000. 18: 927974.
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    Krieg, A. M., CpG motifs in bacterial DNA and their immune effects. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2002. 20: 709760.
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    Raz, E., Tighe, H., Sato, Y., Corr, M., Dudler, J. A., Roman, M., Swain, S. L., Spiegelberg, H. L. and Carson, D. A., Preferential induction of a Th1 immune response and inhibition of specific IgE antibody formation by plasmid DNA immunization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 1996. 93: 51415145.
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    Hartl, A., Kiesslich, J., Weiss, R., Bernhaupt, A., Mostbock, S., Scheiblhofer, S., Flockner, H., Sippl, M., Ebner, C., Ferreira, F. and Thalhamer, J., Isoforms of the major allergen of birch pollen induce different immune responses after genetic immunization. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 1999. 120: 1729.
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    Hartl, A., Kiesslich, J., Weiss, R., Bernhaupt, A., Mostbock, S., Scheiblhofer, S., Ebner, C., Ferreira, F. and Thalhamer, J., Immune responses after immunization with plasmid DNA encoding Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1999. 103: 107113.
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    Hsu, C. H., Chua, K. Y., Tao, M. H., Lai, Y. L., Wu, H. D., Huang, S. K. and Hsieh, K. H., Immunoprophylaxis of allergen-induced immunoglobulin E synthesis and airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo by genetic immunization. Nat. Med. 1996. 2: 540544.
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    Peng, H. J., Su, S. N., Chang, Z. N., Chao, P. L., Kuo, S. W. and Tsai, L. C., Induction of specific Th1 responses and suppression of IgE antibody formation by vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding Der f 11. Vaccine 2002. 20: 17611768.
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    Adel-Patient, K., Creminon, C., Boquet, D., Wal, J. M. and Chatel, J. M., Genetic immunisation with bovine beta-lactoglobulin cDNA induces a preventive and persistent inhibition of specific anti-BLG IgE response in mice. Int.Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2001. 126: 5967.
  • 17
    Vrtala, S., Akdis, C. A., Budak, F., Akdis, M., Blaser, K., Kraft, D. and Valenta, R., T cell epitope-containing hypoallergenic recombinant fragments of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, induce blocking antibodies. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 66536659.
  • 18
    Ferreira, F., Ebner, C., Kramer, B., Casari, G., Briza, P., Kungl, A. J., Grimm, R., Jahn-Schmid, B., Breiteneder, H., Kraft, D., Breitenbach, M., Rheinberger, H. J. and Scheiner, O., Modulation of IgE reactivity of allergens by site-directed mutagenesis: potential use of hypoallergenic variants for immunotherapy. FASEB J. 1998. 12: 231242.
  • 19
    Breiteneder, H., Pettenburger, K., Bito, A., Valenta, R., Kraft, D., Rumpold, H., Scheiner, O. and Breitenbach, M., The gene coding for the major birch pollen allergen Betv1, is highly homologous to a pea disease resistance response gene. EMBO J. 1989. 8: 19351938.
  • 20
    Jilek, S., Barbey, C., Spertini, F. and Corthesy, B., Antigen-independent suppression of the allergic immune response to bee venom phospholipase A(2) by DNA vaccination in CBA/J mice. J. Immunol. 2001. 166: 36123621.
  • 21
    Bauer, L., Bohle, B., Jahn-Schmid, B., Wiedermann, U., Daser, A., Renz, H., Kraft, D. and Ebner, C., Modulation of the allergic immune response in BALB/cmice by subcutaneous injection of high doses of the dominant T cell epitope from the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1997. 107: 536541.
  • 22
    Vrtala, S., Sperr, W. R., Reimitzer, I., van Ree, R., Laffer, S., Muller, W. D., Valent, P., Lechner, K., Rumpold, H., Kraft, D. et al., cDNA cloning of a major allergen from timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen; characterization of the recombinant Phl pV allergen. J. Immunol. 1993. 151: 47734781.
  • 23
    Wiedermann, U., Jahn-Schmid, B., Fritsch, R., Bauer, L., Renz, H., Kraft, D. and Ebner, C., Effects of adjuvants on the immune response to allergens in a murine model of allergen inhalation: cholera toxin induces a Th1-like response to Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1998. 111: 144151.