• 1
    Banchereau, J. and Steinman, R., Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature 1998. 392: 245252.
  • 2
    O'Doherty, U., Peng, M., Gezelter, S., Swiggard, W., Betjes, M., Bhardwaj, N. and Steinman, R., Human blood contains two subsets of dendritic cells, one immunologically mature and the other immature. Immunology 1994. 82: 487493.
  • 3
    Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Riedl, E., Csmarits, B., Bello-Fernandez, C., Pickl, W., Majdic, O. and Knapp, W., Identification of CD68+lin-peripheral blood cells with dendritic precursor characteristics. J. Immunol. 1998. 161: 740748.
  • 4
    Grouard, G., Rissoan, M., Filgueira, L., Durand, I., Banchereau, J. and Liu, Y., The enigmatic plasmacytoid T cells develop into dendritic cells with interleukin (IL)-3 and CD40-ligand. J. Exp. Med. 1997. 185: 11011111.
  • 5
    Cella, M., Jarrossay, D., Facchetti, F., Alebardi, O., Nakajima, H., Lanzavecchia, A. and Colonna, M., Plasmacytoid monocytes migrate to inflamed lymph nodes and produce large amounts of type I interferon. Nat. Med. 1999. 5: 919923.
  • 6
    Dzionek, A., Sohma, Y., Nagafune, J., Cella, M., Colonna, M., Facchetti, F., Gunther, G., Johnston, I., Lanzavecchia, A., Nagasaka, T., Okada, T., Vermi, W., Winkels, G., Yamamoto, T., Zysk, M., Yamaguchi, Y. and Schmitz, J., BDCA-2, a novel Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell-specific type II C-type lectin, mediates antigen capture and is a potent inhibitor of interferon α/β induction. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 194: 18231834.
  • 7
    Facchetti, F., De Wolf-Peters, C., Marocolo, D. and De Vos, R., Plasmacytoid monocytes in granulomatous lymphadenitis and in histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. Sarcoidosis 1991. 8: 170171.
  • 8
    Perussia, B., Fanning, V. and Trinchieri, G., A leukocyte subset bearing HLA-DR antigens is responsible for in vitro alpha interferon production in response to viruses. Nat. Immun. Cell Growth Regul. 1985. 4: 120137.
  • 9
    Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, P., Feldman, M., Mendelsohn, M., Curl, S. and Lopez, C., Human mononuclear cells which produce interferon-alpha during NK(HSV-FS) assays are HLA-DR positive cells distinct from cytolytic natural killer effectors. J. Leukoc. Biol. 1988. 43: 323334.
  • 10
    Siegal, F., Kadowaki, N., Shodell, M., Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, P., Shah, K., Ho, S., Antonenko, S. and Liu, Y., The nature of the principal type 1 interferon-producing cells in human blood. Science 1999. 284: 18351837.
  • 11
    Cella, M., Facchetti, F., Lanzavecchia, A. and Colonna, M., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells activated by influenza virus and CD40L drive a potent Th1 polarization. Nat. Immunol. 2000. 1: 305310.
  • 12
    Kadowaki, N., Antonenko, S., Lau, J. and Liu, Y., Natural interferon alpha/beta-producing cells link innate and adaptive immunity. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 192: 219226.
  • 13
    Kawakami, Y., Eliyahu, S., Delgado, C., Robbins, P., Rivoltini, L., Topalian, S., Miki, T. and Rosenberg, S., Cloning of the gene coding for a shared human melanoma antigen recognized by autologous T cells infiltrating into tumor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1994. 91: 35153519.
  • 14
    Pittet, M. J., Valmori, D., Dunbar, P. R., Speiser, D. E., Lienard, D., Lejeune, F., Fleischhauer, K., Cerundolo, V., Cerottini, J. C. and Romero, P., High frequencies of naive Melan-A/MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells in a large proportion of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 individuals. J. Exp. Med. 1999. 190: 705715.
  • 15
    Zippelius, A., Pittet, M. J., Batard, P., Rufer, N., de Smedt, M., Guillaume, P., Ellefsen, K., Valmori, D., Lienard, D., Plum, J., MacDonald, H. R., Speiser, D. E., Cerottini, J. C. and Romero, P., Thymic selection generates a large T cell pool recognizing a self-peptide in humans. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 195: 485494.
  • 16
    Salio, M., Shepherd, D., Dunbar, P. R., Palmowski, M., Murphy, K., Wu, L. and Cerundolo, V., Mature dendritic cells prime functionally superior melan-A specific CD8+ lymphocytes as compared with non-professional antigen presenting cells. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 11881197.
  • 17
    Cella, M., Scheidegger, D., Palmer-Lehmann, K., Lane, P., Lanzavecchia, A. and Alber, G., Ligation of CD40 on dendritic cells triggers production of high levels of interleukin-12 and enhances T cell stimulatory capacity: T-T help via APC activation. J. Exp. Med. 1996. 184: 747752.
  • 18
    Rogge, L., D'Ambrosio, D., Biffi, M., Penna, G., Minetti, L., Presky, D., Adorini, L. and Sinigaglia, F., The role of Stat4 in species-specific regulation of Th cell development by type I IFNs. J. Immunol. 1998. 161: 65676574.
  • 19
    Hauptmann, R. and Swetly, P., A novel class of human type I interferons. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985. 13: 47394349.
  • 20
    Vilcek, J., Novel interferons. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 89.
  • 21
    Facchetti, F., De Wolf-Peeters, C., Van den Oord, J. J., De Vos, R. and Desmet, V. J., Plasmacytoid T cells: a cell population normally present in the reactive lymph node. An immunohistochemical and electronmicroscopic study. Hum. Pathol. 1988. 19: 10851092.
  • 22
    Vermi, W., Bonecchi, R., Facchetti, F., Bianchi, D., Sozzani, S., Festa, S., Berenzi, A., Cella, M. and Colonna, M., Recruitment of immature plasmacytoid dendritic cells (plasmacytoid monocytes) and myeloid dendritic cells in primary cutaneous melanomas. J. Pathol. 2003, in press.
  • 23
    Bullani, R. R., Wehrli, P., Viard-Leveugle, I., Rimoldi, D., Cerottini, J. C., Saurat, J. H., Tschopp, J. and French, L. E., Frequent downregulation of Fas (CD95) expression and function in melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2002. 12: 263270.
  • 24
    Soubrane, C., Mouawad, R., Antoine, E. C., Verola, O., Gil-Delgado, M. and Khayat, D., A comparative study of Fas and Fas-ligand expression during melanoma progression. Br. J. Dermatol. 2000. 143: 307312.
  • 25
    Marrack, P., Kappler, J. and Mitchell, T., Type I interferons keep activated T cells alive. J. Exp. Med. 1999. 189: 521530.
  • 26
    Tough, D., Sun, S., Zhang, X. and Sprent, J., Stimulation of naive and memory T cells by cytokines. Immunol. Rev. 1999. 170: 3947.
  • 27
    Berg, E., Yoshino, T., Rott, L., Robinson, M., Warnock, R., Kishimoto, T., Picker, L. and Butcher, E., The cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is a skin lymphocyte homing receptor for the vascular lectin endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1. J. Exp. Med. 1991. 174: 14611466.
  • 28
    Picker, L., Martin, R., Trumble, A., Newman, L., Collins, P., Bergstresser, P. and Leung, D., Differential expression of lymphocyte homing receptors by human memory/effector T cellsin pulmonary versus cutaneous immune effector sites. Eur. J. Immunol. 1994. 24: 12691277.
  • 29
    Van Wely, C., Beverley, P., Brett, S., Britten, C. and Tite,J., Expression of L-selectin on Th1 cells is regulated by IL-12. J. Immunol. 1999. 163: 12141221.
  • 30
    McRae, B., Picker, L. and van Seventer, G., Human recombinant interferon-beta influences T helper subset differentiation by regulating cytokine secretion pattern and expression of homing receptors. Eur. J. Immunol. 1997. 27: 26502656.
  • 31
    Rogge, L., Barberis-Maino, L., Biffi, M., Passini, N., Presky, D., Gubler, U. and Sinigaglia, F., Selective expression of an interleukin-12 receptor component by human T helper 1 cells. J. Exp. Med. 1997. 185: 825831.
  • 32
    Cella, M., Salio, M., Sakakibara, Y., Langen, H., Julkunen, I. and Lanzavecchia, A., Maturation, activation, and protection of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA. J. Exp. Med. 1999. 189: 821829.
  • 33
    Schuler, G. and Steinman, R., Dendritic cells as adjuvants for immune-mediated resistance to tumors. J. Exp. Med. 1997. 186: 11831187.
  • 34
    Dallal, R. and Lotze, M., The dendritic cell and human cancer vaccines. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2000. 12: 583588.
  • 35
    Bell, D., Chomarat, P., Broyles, D., Netto, G., Harb, G., Lebecque, S., Valladeau, J., Davoust, J., Palucka, K. and Banchereau, J., In breast carcinoma tissue, immature dendritic cells reside within the tumor, whereas mature dendritic cells are located in peritumoral areas. J. Exp. Med. 1999. 190: 14171426.
  • 36
    Gabrilovich, D., Chen, H., Girgis, K., Cunningham, H., Meny,G., Nadaf, S., Kavanaugh, D. and Carbone, D., Production of vascular endothelial growth factor by human tumors inhibits the functional maturation of dendritic cells. Nat. Med. 1996. 2: 10961103.
  • 37
    Albert, M., Pearce, S., Francisco, L., Sauter, B., Roy, P., Silverstein, R. and Bhardwaj, N., Immature dendritic cells phagocytose apoptotic cells via alphavbeta5 and CD36, and cross-present antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 1998. 188: 13591368.
  • 38
    Sorg, R., Kogler, G. and Wernet, P., Identification of cord blood dendritic cells as an immature CD11c-population. Blood 1999. 93: 23022307.
  • 39
    Allavena, P., Sica, A., Vecchi, A., Locati, M., Sozzani, S. and Mantovani, A., The chemokine receptor switch paradigm and dendritic cell migration: its significance in tumor tissues. Immunol. Rev. 2000. 177: 141149.
  • 40
    Mellado, M., AM, D. A., Moreno, M., Martinez-A, C. and Rodriguez-Frade, J., A potential immune escape mechanism by melanoma cells through the activation of chemokine-induced T cell death. Curr. Biol. 2001. 11: 691696.
  • 41
    Remmel, E., Terracciano, L., Noppen, C., Zajac, P., Heberer,M., Spagnoli, G. and Padovan, E., Modulation of dendritic cell phenotype and mobility by tumor cells in vitro. Hum. Immunol. 2001. 62: 3949.
  • 42
    Zou, W., Machelon, V., Coulomb-L'Hermin, A., Borvak, J., Nome, F., Isaeva, T., Wei, S., Krzysiek, R., Durand-Gasselin, I., Gordon, A., Pustilnik, T., Curiel, D. T., Galanaud, P., Capron, F., Emilie, D. and Curiel, T. J., Stromal-derived factor-1 in human tumors recruits and alters the function of plasmacytoid precursordendritic cells. Nat. Med. 2001. 7: 13391346.
  • 43
    Penna, G., Sozzani, S. and Adorini, L., Cutting edge: selective usage of chemokine receptors byplasmacytoid dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 18621866.
  • 44
    Kayagaki, N., Yamaguchi, N., Nakayama, M., Eto, H., Okumura,K. and Yagita, H., Type I interferons (IFNs) regulate tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression on human T cells: Anovel mechanism for the antitumor effects of type I IFNs. J. Exp. Med. 1999. 189: 14511460.
  • 45
    Belardelli, F., Ferrantini, M., Santini, S., Baccarini, S., Proietti, E., Colombo, M., Sprent, J. and Tough, D., The induction of in vivo proliferation of long-lived CD44hi CD8+ T cells after the injection of tumor cells expressing IFN-alpha1 into syngeneic mice. Cancer Res. 1998. 58: 57955802.
  • 46
    Lloyd, R., Blalock, J. and Stanton, G., Cell-to-cell transfer of interferon-induced antiproliferative activity. Science 1983. 221: 953955.
  • 47
    Qin, Z. and Blankenstein, T., CD4+ T cell-mediated tumor rejection involves inhibition of angiogenesis that is dependent on IFN gamma receptor expression by nonhematopoietic cells. Immunity 2000. 12: 677686.
  • 48
    Belardelli, F. and Ferrantini, M., Cytokines as a link between innate and adaptive antitumor immunity. Trends Immunol. 2002. 23: 201208.
  • 49
    Traunecker, A., Oliveri, F. and Karjalainen, K., Myeloma based expression system for productionof large mammalian proteins. Trends Biotechnol. 1991. 9: 109113.
  • 50
    Lane, P., Burdet, C., McConnell, F., Lanzavecchia, A. and Padovan, E., CD40 ligand-independent B cell activation revealed by CD40 ligand-deficient T cell clones: evidence for distinct activation requirements for antibody formation and B cell proliferation. Eur. J. Immunol. 1995. 25: 17881793.
  • 51
    Dunbar, P. R., Smith, C., Chao, D., Salio, M., Shepherd, D., Mirza, F., Lipp, M., Lanzavecchia, A., Sallusto, F., Evans, A., Russell-Jones, R., Harris, A. and Cerundolo, V., A shift in the phenotype of melan-A-specific CTL identifies melanoma patients with an active tumor-specific immune response. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 66446652.
  • 52
    Palmowski, M. J., Choi, E. M., Hermans, I. F., Gilbert, S. C., Chen, J. L., Gileadi, U., Salio, M., Van Pel, A., Man, S., Bonin, E., Liljestrom, P., Dunbar, P. R. and Cerundolo, V., Competition between CTL narrows the immune response induced by prime-boost vaccination protocols. J. Immunol. 2002. 168: 43914398.