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  • 1
    Stockinger, B., T lymphocyte tolerance: from thymic deletion to peripheral control mechanisms. Adv. Immunol. 1999. 71: 229265.
  • 2
    Shevach, E. M., Regulatory T cells in autoimmmunity*. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2000. 18: 423449.
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    Diaz-Villoslada, P., Shih, A., Shao, L., Genain, C. P. and Hauser, S. L., Autoreactivity to myelin antigens: myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is a prevalent autoantigen. J. Neuroimmunol. 1999. 99: 3643.
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    Sakaguchi, S., Sakaguchi, N., Shimizu, J., Yamazaki, S., Sakihama, T., Itoh, M., Kuniyasu, Y., Nomura, T., Toda, M. and Takahashi, T., Immunologic tolerance maintained by CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells: their common role in controlling autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and transplantation tolerance. Immunol. Rev. 2001. 182: 1832.
  • 5
    Shevach, E. M., CD4+ CD25+ suppressor T cells: more questions than answers. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2002. 2: 389400.
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    Apostolou, I., Sarukhan, A., Klein, L. and von Boehmer, H., Origin of regulatory T cells with known specificity for antigen. Nat. Immunol. 2002. 3: 756763.
  • 7
    Lehmann, J., Huehn, J., de la Rosa, M., Maszyna, F., Kretschmer, U., Krenn, V., Brunner, M., Scheffold, A. and Hamann, A., Expression of the integrin alpha Ebeta 7 identifies unique subsets of CD25+ as well as CD25 regulatory T cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2002. 99: 1303113036.
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    Furtado, G. C., Olivares-Villagomez, D., Curotto de Lafaille, M. A., Wensky, A. K., Latkowski, J. A. and Lafaille, J. J., Regulatory T cells in spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Immunol. Rev. 2001. 182: 122134.
  • 9
    Thornton, A. M. and Shevach, E. M., Suppressor effector function of CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells is antigen nonspecific. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 183190.
  • 10
    McHugh, R. S., Whitters, M. J., Piccirillo, C. A., Young, D. A., Shevach, E. M., Collins, M. and Byrne, M. C., CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells: gene expression analysis reveals a functional role for the glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor. Immunity 2002. 16: 311323.
  • 11
    Kuniyasu, Y., Takahashi, T., Itoh, M., Shimizu, J., Toda, G. and Sakaguchi, S., Naturally anergic and suppressive CD25+CD4+ T cells as a functionally and phenotypically distinct immunoregulatory T cell subpopulation. Int. Immunol. 2000. 12: 11451155.
  • 12
    Baecher-Allan, C., Brown, J. A., Freeman, G. J. and Hafler, D. A., CD4+CD25high regulatory cells in human peripheral blood. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 12451253.
  • 13
    Itoh, M., Takahashi, T., Sakaguchi, N., Kuniyasu, Y., Shimizu, J., Otsuka, F. and Sakaguchi, S., Thymus and autoimmunity: production of CD25+CD4+ naturally anergicand suppressive T cells as a key function of the thymus in maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 53175326.
  • 14
    Jordan, M. S., Boesteanu, A., Reed, A. J., Petrone, A. L., Holenbeck, A. E., Lerman, M. A., Naji, A. and Caton, A. J., Thymic selection of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells induced by an agonist self-peptide. Nat. Immunol. 2001. 2: 301306.
  • 15
    Kohm, A. P., Carpentier, P. A., Anger, H. A. and Miller, S. D., Cutting edge: CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress antigen-specific autoreactive immune responses and central nervous system inflammation during active experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 47124716.
  • 16
    Jonuleit, H., Schmitt, E., Stassen, M., Tuettenberg, A., Knop, J. and Enk, A. H., Identification and functional characterization of human CD4+CD25+ T cells with regulatory properties isolatedfrom peripheral blood. J. Exp. Med. 2001. 193: 12851294.
  • 17
    Stephens, L. A., Mottet, C., Mason, D. and Powrie, F., Human CD4+CD25+ thymocytes and peripheral T cells have immune suppressive activity in vitro. Eur. J. Immunol. 2001. 31: 12471254.
  • 18
    Traggiai, E., Biagioli, T., Rosati, E., Ballerini, C., Mazzanti, B., Ben Nun, A., Massacesi, L. and Vergelli, M., IL-7-enhanced T cell response to myelinproteins in multiple sclerosis. J. Neuroimmunol. 2001. 121: 111119.
  • 19
    Hellings, N., Baree, M., Verhoeven, C., D'Hooghe, M. B., Medaer, R., Bernard, C. C., Raus, J. and Stinissen, P., T cell reactivity to multiple myelin antigens in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. J. Neurosci. Res. 2001. 63: 290302.
  • 20
    Dosch, H., Cheung, R. K., Karges, W., Pietropaolo, M. and Becker, D. J., Persistent T cell anergy in human type 1 diabetes. J. Immunol. 1999. 163: 69336940.
  • 21
    Viglietta, V., Kent, S. C., Orban, T. and Hafler, D. A., GAD65-reactive T cells are activated in patients with autoimmune type 1a diabetes. J. Clin. Invest. 2002. 109: 895903.
  • 22
    Roep, B. O., Atkinson, M. A., van Endert, P. M., Gottlieb, P. A., Wilson, S. B. and Sachs, J. A., Autoreactive T cell responses in insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus. Report of the first international workshop for standardization of T cell assays. J. Autoimmun. 1999. 13: 267282.
  • 23
    Wing, K., Ekmark, A., Karlsson, H., Rudin, A. and Suri-Payer, E., Characterization of human CD25+ CD4+ T cells in thymus, cord and adult blood. Immunology 2002. 106: 190199.
  • 24
    Ng, W. F., Duggan, P. J., Ponchel, F., Matarese, G., Lombardi, G., Edwards, A. D., Isaacs, J. D. and Lechler, R. I., Human CD4+CD25+ cells: a naturally occurring population of regulatory T cells. Blood 2001. 98: 27362744.
  • 25
    Lucivero, G., Dalla Mora, L., Bresciano, E., Loria, M. P., Pezone, L. and Mancino, D., Functional characteristics of cord blood T lymphocytes after lectin and anti-CD3 stimulation. Differences in the way T cells express activation molecules and proliferate. Int. J. Clin. Lab. Res. 1996. 26: 255261.
  • 26
    Taams, L. S., Vukmanovic-Stejic, M., Smith, J., Dunne, P. J., Fletcher, J. M., Plunkett, F. J., Ebeling, S. B., Lombardi, G., Rustin, M. H., Bijlsma, J. W., Lafeber, F. P., Salmon, M. and Akbar, A. N., Antigen-specific T cell suppression by human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 2002. 32: 16211630.
  • 27
    Asano, M., Toda, M., Sakaguchi, N. and Sakaguchi, S., Autoimmune disease as a consequence of developmental abnormality of a T cell subpopulation. J. Exp. Med. 1996. 184: 387396.
  • 28
    Suri-Payer, E., Amar, A. Z., McHugh, R., Natarajan, K., Margulies, D. H. and Shevach, E. M., Post-thymectomy autoimmune gastritis: fine specificity and pathogenicity of anti-H/K ATPase-reactive T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 1999. 29: 669677.
  • 29
    Scheinecker, C., McHugh, R., Shevach, E. M. and Germain, R. N., Constitutive presentation of a natural tissue autoantigen exclusively by dendritic cells in the draining lymph node. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 196: 10791090.
  • 30
    Fredrikson, S., Sun, J. B., Huang, W. X., Li, B. L., Olsson,T. and Link, H., Cord blood contains high numbers of autoimmune T cells recognizing multiple myelin proteins and acetylcholine receptor. J. Immunol. 1993. 151: 22172224.
  • 31
    Ludvigsson, J. and Wahlberg, J., Diabetes-related autoantibodies in cord blood from children of healthy mothers have disappeared by the time the child is one year old. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2002. 958: 289292.
  • 32
    Kukreja, A., Cost, G., Marker, J., Zhang, C., Sun, Z., Lin-Su, K., Ten, S., Sanz, M., Exley, M., Wilson, B., Porcelli, S. and Maclaren, N., Multiple immuno-regulatory defects in type-1 diabetes. J. Clin. Invest. 2002. 109: 131140.
  • 33
    Stephens, L. A. and Mason, D., CD25 is a marker for CD4+ thymocytes that prevent autoimmune diabetes in rats, but peripheral T cells with this function are found in both CD25+ and CD25 subpopulations. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 31053110.
  • 34
    Annunziato, F., Cosmi, L., Liotta, F., Lazzeri, E., Manetti,R., Vanini, V., Romagnani, P., Maggi, E. and Romagnani, S., Phenotype, localization, and mechanism of suppression of CD4+CD25+ human thymocytes. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 196: 379387.
  • 35
    Derbinski, J., Schulte, A., Kyewski, B. and Klein, L., Promiscuous gene expression in medullary thymic epithelial cells mirrors the peripheral self. Nat. Immunol. 2001. 2: 10321039.
  • 36
    Heath, V. L., Moore, N. C., Parnell, S. M. and Mason, D. W., Intrathymic expression of genes involved in organ specific autoimmune disease. J. Autoimmun. 1998. 11: 309318.
  • 37
    Seddon, B. and Mason, D., Peripheral autoantigen induces regulatory T cells that prevent autoimmunity. J. Exp. Med. 1999. 189: 877882.