• 1
    Jack, D. L., Klein, N. J. and Turner, M. W., Mannose-binding lectin: targeting the microbial world for complement attack and opsonophagocytosis. Immunol. Rev. 2001. 180: 8699.
  • 2
    Petersen, S. V., Thiel, S. and Jensenius, J. C., The mannan-binding lectin pathway of complementactivation: biology and disease association. Mol. Immunol. 2001. 38: 133149.
  • 3
    Dahl, M. R., Thiel, S., Matsushita, M., Fujita, T., Willis, A. C., Christensen, T., Vorup-Jensen, T. and Jensenius, J. C., MASP-3 and its association withdistinct complexes of the mannan-binding lectin complement activation pathway. Immunity 2001. 15: 127135.
  • 4
    Summerfield, J. A., Sumiya, M., Levin, M. and Turner, M. W., Association of mutations in mannose binding protein gene with childhood infection in consecutive hospital series. BMJ 1997. 314: 12291232.
  • 5
    Summerfield, J. A., Ryder, S., Sumiya, M., Thursz, M., Gorchein, A., Monteil, M. A. and Turner M. W., Mannose binding protein gene mutations associated with unusual and severe infections in adults. Lancet 1995. 345: 886889.
  • 6
    Garred, P., Madsen, H. O., Hofmann, B. and Svejgaard, A., Increased frequency of homozygosity of abnormal mannan-binding-protein alleles in patients with suspected immunodeficiency. Lancet 1995. 346: 941943.
  • 7
    Sumiya, M., Super, M., Tabona, P., Levinsky, R. J., Arai, T., Turner, M. W. and Summerfield, J. A., Molecular basis of opsonic defect in immunodeficient children. Lancet 1991. 337: 15691570.
  • 8
    Lipscombe, R. J., Sumiya, M., Hill, A. V. S., Lau, Y. L., Levinsky, R. J., Summerfield, J. A. and Turner, M. W., High frequencies in African and non-African populations of independent mutations in the mannose binding protein gene. Hum. Mol. Genet. 1992. 1: 709715.
  • 9
    Madsen, H. O., Garred, P., Kurtzhals, J. A., Lamm, L. U., Ryder, L. P., Thiel, S. and Svejgaard, A., A new frequent allele is the missing link in the structural polymorphism of the human mannan-binding protein. Immunogenetics 1994. 40: 3744.
  • 10
    Naito, H., Ma, Y., Uemura, K., Arano, Y. and Kawasaki, T., Metabolic properties of normal and mutant mannan-binding proteins in mouse plasma. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1999. 256: 231234.
  • 11
    Wallis, R. and Cheng, J. Y. T., Molecular defects in variant forms of mannose-binding protein associated with immunodeficiency. J. Immunol. 1999. 163: 49534959.
  • 12
    Kurata, H., Cheng, H. M., Kozutsumi, Y., Yokota, Y. and Kawasaki, T., Role of the collagen-like domain of the human serum mannan-binding protein in the activation of complement and the secretion of this lectin. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1993. 191: 12041210.
  • 13
    Heise, C. T., Nicholls, J. R., Leamy, C. E. and Wallis, R., Impaired secretion of rat mannose-binding protein resulting from mutation in the collagen-like domain. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 14031409.
  • 14
    Matsushita, M., Hijikata, M., Ohta, Y., Iwata, K., Matsumoto, M., Nakao, K., Kanai, K., Yoshida, N., Baba, K. and Mishiro, S., Hepatitis C virus infection and mutations of mannose-binding lectin gene MBL. Arch. Virol. 1998. 143: 645651.
  • 15
    Sasaki, K., Tsutsumi, A., Wakamiya, N., Ohtani, K., Suzuki, Y., Watanabe, Y., Nakayama, N. and Koike, T., Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 2000. 35: 960965.
  • 16
    Matsushita, M., Hijikata, M., Matsushita, M., Ohta, Y. and Mishiro, S., Association of mannose-binding lectin gene haplotype LXPA and LYPB with interferon-resistant hepatitis C virus infection in Japanese patients. J. Hepatol. 1998. 29: 695700.
  • 17
    Tsutsumi, A., Sasaki, K., Wakamiya, N., Ichikawa, K., Atsumi, T., Ohtani, K., Suzuki, Y., Koike, T. and Sumida, T., Mannose-binding lectin gene: polymorphisms in Japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren's syndrome. Genes Immun. 2001. 2: 99104.
  • 18
    Hakozaki, Y., Yoshiba, M., Sekiyama, K., Seike, E., Iwamoto,J., Mitani, K., Mine, M., Morizane, T., Ohtani, K., Suzuki, Y. and Wakamiya, N., Mannose-binding lectin and the prognosis of fulminant hepatic failure caused by HBV infection. Liver 2002. 22: 2934.
  • 19
    Madsen, H. O., Garred, P., Thiel, S., Kurtzhals, J. A., Lamm, L. U., Ryder, L. P. and Svejgaard, A., Interplay between promoter and structural gene variations control basal serum level of mannan-binding protein. J. Immunol. 1995. 155: 30133020.
  • 20
    Madsen, H. O., Statz, M. L., Hogh, B., Svejgaard, A. and Garred, P., Different molecular events result in low protein levels of mannan-binding lectin in populations from Southeast Africa and South America. J. Immunol. 1998. 161: 31693175.
  • 21
    Stefensen, R., Thiel, S., Varming, K., Jersild, C. and Jensenius, J. C., Detection of structural gene mutations and promoter polymorphisms in the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) gene by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. J. Immunol. Methods 2000. 241: 3342.
  • 22
    Crosdale, D. J., Ollier, W. E. R., Thomson, W., Dyer, P. A., Jensenius, J., Johnson, R. W. G. and Poulton, K. V., Mannose binding lectin (MBL) genotype distributions with relation to serum levels in UK Caucasoids. Eur. J. Immunogenet. 2000. 27: 111117.
  • 23
    Ip, W. K., Lau, Y. L., Chan, S. Y., Mok, C. C., Chan, D., Tong, K. K. and Lau, C. S., Mannose-binding lectin and rheumatoid arthritis in southern Chinese. Arthritis Rheum. 2000. 43: 16791687.
  • 24
    Naito, H., Ikeda, A., Hasegawa, K., Oka, S., Uemura, K., Kawasaki, N. and Kawasaki, T., Characterization of human serum mannan-binding protein promoter. J. Biochem. 1999. 126: 10041012.
  • 25
    Ip, W. K., Chan, S. Y., Lau, C. S. and Lau, Y. L., Association of systemic lupus erythematosus with promoter polymorphisms of the mannose-binding lectin gene. Arthritis Rheum. 1998. 41: 16631668.
  • 26
    Terai, I., Kobayashi, K., Fujita, T. and Hagiwara, K., Human serum mannose binding protein (MBP): development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and determination of levels in serum from 1085 normal Japanese and in some body fluids. Biochem. Med. Metab. Biol. 1993. 50: 111119.
  • 27
    Terai, I., and Kobayashi, K., Perinatal changes in serum mannose-binding protein (MBP) levels. Immunol. Lett. 1993. 38: 125127.
  • 28
    Garred, P., Madsen, H. O., Kurtzhals, J. A., Lamm, L. U., Thiel, S., Hey, A. S. and Svejgaard, A., Diallelic polymorphism may explain variations of the blood concentration of mannan-binding protein in Eskimos, but not in black Africans. Eur. J. Immunogenet. 1992. 19: 403412.
  • 29
    Aittoniemi, J., Miettinen, A., Laippala, P., Isolauri, E., Viikari, J., Ruuska, T. and Soppi, E., Age-dependent variation in the serum concentration of mannan-binding protein. Acta Paediatr. 1996. 85: 906909.
  • 30
    Thiel, S., Petersen, S. V., Vorup-Jensen, T., Matsushita, M., Fujita, T., Stover, C. M., Schwaeble, W. J. and Jensenius, J. C., Interaction of C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) with C1r, C1s, MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2, and the MBL-associated protein MAp19. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 878887.
  • 31
    Lipscombe, R. J., Sumiya, M., Summerfield, J. A. and Turner, M. W., Distinct physicochemical characteristics of human mannose binding protein expressed by individuals of differing genotype. Immunology 1995. 85: 660667.
  • 32
    Super, M., Gillies, S. D., Foley, S., Sastry, K., Schweinle,J. E., Silverman, V. J., and Ezekowitz, R. A. B., Distinct and overlapping functions of allelic forms of human mannose binding protein. Nat. Genet. 1992. 2: 5055.
  • 33
    Vorup-Jensen, T., Sorensen, E. S., Jensen, U. B., Schwaeble, W., Kawasaki, T., Ma, Y., Uemura, K., Wakamiya, N., Suzuki, Y., Jensen, T. G., Takahashi, K., Ezekowitz, R. A., Thiel, S. and Jensenius, J. C., Recombinant expression of human mannan-binding lectin. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2001. 1: 677687.
  • 34
    Ohtani, K., Suzuki, Y., Eda, S., Kawai, T., Kase, T., Keshi, H., Sakai, Y., Yamamoto, S., Sakamoto, T. and Wakamiya, N., High-level effective production of human mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. J. Immunol. Methods 1999. 222: 135144.
  • 35
    Valdimarsson, H., Stefansson, M., Vikingsdottir, T., Arason, G. J., Koch, C., Thiel, S. and Jensenius, J. C., Reconstitution of opsonizing activity by infusion of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) to MBL-deficient humans. Scand. J. Immunol. 1998. 48: 116123.
  • 36
    Kurata, H., Sannoh, T., Kozutumi, Y., Yokota, Y. and Kawasaki, T., Structure and function of mannose-binding proteins isolated from human liver and serum. J. Biochem. 1994. 115: 11481154.
  • 37
    Yokota, Y., Arai, T. and Kawasaki, T., Oligomeric structures required for complement activationof serum mannan-binding proteins. J. Biochem. 1995. 117: 414419.
  • 38
    Holmskov, U., Holt, P., Reid, K. B. M., Willis, A. C., Teisner, B. and Jensenius, J. C., Purification and characterization of bovine mannan-binding protein. Glycobiology 1993. 3: 147153.
  • 39
    Oka, S., Ikeda, K., Kawasaki, T. and Yamashina, I., Isolation and characterization of two distinct mannan-binding proteins from rat serum. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1988. 260: 257266.
  • 40
    Terai, I., Kobayashi, K., Matsushita, M., Fujita, T. and Matsuno, K., Alpha-2 macroglobulin binds to and inhibits mannose-binding protein associated serine protease (MASP). Int. Immunol. 1995. 7: 15791584.
  • 41
    Kyogashima, M., Krivan, H. C., Schweinle, J. E., Ginsburg, V. and Holt, G. D., Glycosphingolipid-binding specificity of the mannose-binding protein from human sera. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1990. 283:217222.
  • 42
    Liu, H., Jensen, L., Hansen, S., Peterson, S. V. Takahashi, K., Ezekowitz, A. B., Hansen, F. D., Jensenius, J. C. and Thiel, S., Characterization and quantification of mouse mannan-binding lectins (MBL-A and MBL-C) and study of acute phase responses. Scand. J. Immunol. 2001. 53: 489497.
  • 43
    Wallis, R. and Drickmer, K., Molecular determination of oligomer formation and complement fixation in mannose-binding protein. J. Biol. Chem. ,1999. 274: 35803589.
  • 44
    Lu, J. H., Thiel, S., Wiedemann, H., Timpl, R. and Reid, K. B. M., Binding of the pentamer/hexamer forms of mannan-binding protein to zymosan activates the proenzyme C1r2C1s2 complex, of the classical pathway of complement, without involvement of C1q. J. Immunol. 1990. 144: 22872294.
  • 45
    Ma, Y., Shida, H. and Kawasaki, T., Functional expression of human mannan-binding proteins (MBPs) in human hepatoma cell line infected by recombinant vaccinia virus: post-translational modification, molecular assembly, and differentiation of serum and liver MBP. J. Biochem. 1997. 122: 810818.
  • 46
    Thiel, S., Jensen, T. V., Stover, C. M., Schwaeble, W., Laursen, S. B., Poulsen, K., Willis, A. C., Eggleton, P., Hansen, P., Holmskov, U., Reid, K. B. M. and Jensenius, J. C., A second serine protease associated with mannan-binding lectinthat activates complement. Nature 1997. 386: 506510.
  • 47
    Vorup-Jensen, T., Petersen, S. V., Hansen, A. G., Poulsen, K., Schwaeble, W., Sim, R. B., Reid, K. B. M., Davis, S. J., Thiel, S. and Jensenius, J. C., Distinct pathways of mannan-binding lectin (MBL)- and C1-complex autoactivation revealed by reconstitution of MBL with recombinant MBL-associated serine protease-2. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 20932100.
  • 48
    Peterslund, N. A., Koch, C., Jensenius, J. C. and Thiel, S., Association between deficiency of mannose-binding lectin and severe infections after chemotherapy. Lancet 2001. 358: 637638.
  • 49
    Neth, O., Hann, I., Turner, M. W. and Klein, N. J., Deficiency of mannose-binding lectin and burden of infection in children with malignancy: a prospective study. Lancet 2001. 358: 614618.
  • 50
    Ezekowitz, R. A., Mannose-binding lectin in prediction of susceptibility to infection. Lancet 2001. 358: 598599.
  • 51
    Matsushita, M., Miyakawa, H., Tanaka, A., Hijikata, M., Kikuchi, K., Fujikawa, H., Arai, J., Sainokami, S., Hino, K., Terai, I., Mishiro, S. and Gershwin, M. E., Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the mannose-binding lectin are associated with susceptibility of primary biliary cirrhosis. J. Autoimmun. 2001. 17: 251257.
  • 52
    Matsushita, M., Takahashi, A., Hatsuse, H., Kawakami, M. and Fujita, T., Human mannose-binding protein is identical to a component of Ra-reactive factor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1992. 183: 645651.
  • 53
    Terai, I., Kobayashi, K., Matsushita, M. and Fujita, T., Human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1): determination of levels in body fluids and identification of two forms in serum. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1997. 110: 317323.