Pax5 is an essential transcription factor for B cell development, and it is reported that Pax5 expression was reduced in the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) knockout mouse. To investigate whether signals from the IL-7R regulate Pax5 transcription, we searched the consensus sequence of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) in the Pax5 promoter region, since STAT is one of the components of cytokine signal transduction. A STAT-binding motif, termed SBM, was identified at 1,118 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site, and SBM completely overlapped with the binding sitefor early B cell factor (EBF). STAT5 was phosphorylated in the presence of IL-7 in the IL-7-dependent preB cell line, PreBR1, and phosphorylated-STAT5 as well as EBF was found to bind to the SBM. Moreover, we also revealed STAT5 binding to SBM in PreBR1 cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Transient co-transfection of reporter genes together with expression vectors of a constitutive active form of STAT5 and EBF into NIH3T3 cells demonstrated that STAT5 enhanced EBF-regulating transcription. Our results suggest that STAT5 phosphorylated by IL-7 can directly up-regulate Pax5 transcription in early B cells.