• 1
    Celada, A. and Nathan, C., Macrophage activation revisited. Immunol. Today 1993. 15: 100102.
  • 2
    Xaus, J., Comalada, M., Valledor, A. F., Cardó, M., Herrero,C., Soler, C., Lloberas, J. and Celada, A., Molecular mechanisms involved in macrophage survival, proliferation, activation or apoptosis. Immunobiology 2001. 204: 543550.
  • 3
    Xaus, J., Comalada, M., Cardo, M., Valledor, A. F. and Celada, A., Decorin inhibits macrophage colony-stimulating factor proliferation of macrophages and enhances cell survival through induction of p27Kip1 and p21Waf1. Blood 2001. 98: 21242133.
  • 4
    Celada, A., Borras, F., Soler, C., Lloberas, J., Klemsz, M. J., Van Beveren, C., McKercher, S. R. and Maki, R. A., The transcription factor PU.1 is involved in macrophage proliferation. J. Exp. Med. 1996. 184: 6169.
  • 5
    Lloberas, J., Soler, C. and Celada, A., The key role of PU.1/Spi-1 in B cells, myeloid cells andmacrophages. Immunol. Today 1999. 20: 184189.
  • 6
    Rao, A., Chun, L. and Hogan, P. G., Transcription factors of the NFAT family: regulation and function. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1997. 15: 707747.
  • 7
    Svensson, U., Holst, E. and Sundler, R., Cyclosporin-sensitive expression of cytokine mRNA in mouse macrophages responding to bacteria. Mol. Immunol. 1995. 32: 157165.
  • 8
    Hamalainen, M., Lahti, A. and Moilanen, E., Calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimusinhibit expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in colon epithelial and macrophage cell lines. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2002. 448: 239244.
  • 9
    Durez, P., Abramowicz, D., Gerald, C., van Mechelen, M., Amraoui, Z., Duboi, D., Leo, O., Velu, T. and Goldman, M., In vivo induction of interleukin 10 by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody or bacterial lipopolysaccharide: differential modulation by cyclosporin A. J. Exp. Med. 1993. 177: 551555.
  • 10
    Conboy, I. M., Manoli, D., Mhaiskar, V. and Jones, P. P., Calcineurin and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase modulate macrophage effector functions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999. 96: 63246329.
  • 11
    Takuwa, N., Zhou, W. and Takuwa, Y., Calcium, calmodulin and cell cycle progression. Cell. Signal. 1995. 7: 93104.
  • 12
    Means, A. R., Calcium, calmodulin and cell cycle regulation. FEBS Lett. 1994. 347: 14.
  • 13
    Ho, S., Clipstone, N., Timmermann, L., Northrop, J., Graef, I., Fiorentino, D., Nourse, J. and Crabtree, G. R., The mechanism of action of cyclosporin A and FK506. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 1996. 80: S40–S45.
  • 14
    Valledor, A. F., Xaus, J., Marques, L. and Celada, A., Macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 through a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. J. Immunol. 1999. 163: 24522462.
  • 15
    Valledor, A. F., Comalada, M., Xaus, J. and Celada, A., The differential time-course of extracellular-regulated kinase activity correlates with the macrophage response towards proliferation or activation. J. Biol. Chem. 2000. 275: 74037409.
  • 16
    Valledor, A. F., Xaus, J., Comalada, M., Soler, C. and Celada, A., Protein kinase Cϵ is required for the induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 2937.
  • 17
    Noguchi, T., Metz, R., Chen, L., Mattei, M. G., Carrasco, D. and Bravo, R., Structure, mapping, and expression of erp, a growth factor-inducible gene encoding a nontransmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, and effect of ERP on cell growth. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1993. 13: 51955205.
  • 18
    Guerini, D. and Klee, C. B., Cloning of human calcineurin A: evidence for two isozymes and identification of a polyproline structural domain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1989. 86: 91839187.
  • 19
    Song, Q., Khanna, K. K., Lu, H. and Lavin, M. F., Cloning and characterization of a human protein phosphatase 1-encoding cDNA. Gene 1993. 129: 291295.
  • 20
    Büscher, D., Hipskind, R. A., Krautwald, S., Reimann, T. and Baccarini, M., Ras-dependent and -independent pathways target the mitogen-activated protein kinase network in macrophages. Mol. Cell. Biol .1995. 15: 466475.
  • 21
    Jaworowski, A., Christy, E., Yusoff, P. P., Byrne, R. and Hamilton, J. A., Differences in the kinetics of activation of protein kinases and ERK-1 in CSF and LPS-stimulated macrophages. Biochem. J. 1996. 320: 10111016.
  • 22
    Hidaka, H. and Tanaka, T., Modulation of Ca2+-dependent regulatory systems by calmodulin antagonists and other agents. In Hidaka, H. and Hartshorne, D. (Eds.) Calmodulin antagonists and cellular physiology. Academic Press, New York 1985, pp 1323.
  • 23
    Hart, R. B., Bates, M. D., Cormier, M. J., Rosen, G. M. and Conn, P. M., Synthesis and characterization of calmodulin antagonistic drugs. Methods Enzymol .1983. 102: 195204.
  • 24
    Triggle, D. J. and Janis, R. A., Calcium channel ligands. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1987. 29: 349369.
  • 25
    Janis, R. A. and Triggle, D. J., New developments in Ca2+ channel antagonists. J. Med. Chem. 1983. 26: 775785.
  • 26
    Mirabet, M., Herrera, C., Cordero, O. J., Mallol, J., Lluis,C. and Franco,R., Expression of A2B adenosine receptors in human lymphocytes: their role in T cell activation. J. Cell Science 1999. 112: 491502.
  • 27
    Takahashi, N., Hayano, T. and Suzuki, M., Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase is the cyclosporin A-binding protein cyclophilin. Nature 1989. 337: 473475.
  • 28
    Heitman, J., Movva, N. R. and Hall, M. N., Targets for cell cycle arrest by the immunosuppressant rapamycin in yeast. Science 1991. 253: 905909.
  • 29
    Fruman, D. A., Wood, M. A., Gjertson, C. K., Katz, H. R., Burakoff, S. J. and Bierer, B. E., FK506 binding protein 12 mediates sensitivity to both FK506 and rapamycin in murine mast cells. Eur. J. Immunol .1995. 25: 563571.
  • 30
    Zhang, L. H., Youn, H. D. and Liu, J. O., Inhibition of cell cycle progression by the novel cyclophilin ligand sanglifehrin A is mediated through the NFκB-dependent activation of p53. J. Biol. Chem .2002. 276: 4353443540.
  • 31
    Zhang, L. H. and Liu, J. O., Sanglifehrin A, a novel cyclophilin-binding immunosuppressant, inhibits IL-2-dependent T cell proliferation at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. J. Immunol. 2001. 166: 56115618.
  • 32
    Zenke, G., Strittmatter, U., Fuchs, S., Quesniaux, V. F. J., Brinkmann, V., Schuler, W., Zurini, M., Enz, A., Billich, A., Sanglier, J. J. and Fehr, T., Sanglifehrin A, a novel cyclophilin-binding compound showing immunosuppressive activity with a new mechanism of action. J. Immunol .2001. 166: 71657171.
  • 33
    Shandley, T. P., Vasi, N., Denenberg, A. and Wong, H. R., The serine/theonine phosphatase, PP2A: endogenous regulator of inflammatory cell signaling. J. Immunol. 2001. 166: 966972.
  • 34
    Sugiura, R., Sio, S. O., Shuntoh, H. and Kuno, T., Calcineurin phosphatase in signal transduction: lessons from fission yeast. Genes Cells 2002. 7: 619627.
  • 35
    Hoeflich, K. P. and Ikura, M., Calmodulin in action: diversity in target recognition and activation mechanisms. Cell 2002. 108: 739742.
  • 36
    Losa Garcia, J. E., Mateos Rodriguez, F., Jimenez Lopez, A. and Perez Arellano, J. L., Action of cyclosporin A on mononuclear phagocytes. Investig. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. 1996. 6: 222231.
  • 37
    Agell, N., Bachs, O., Rocamora, N. and Villalong, P., Modulation ofthe Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway by Ca2+, and calmodulin. Cell. Signal. 2002. 14: 649654.
  • 38
    De Hoog, C. L., Fan, W. T., Goldstein, M. D., Moran, M. F. and Koch, C. A., Calmodulin-independent coordination of Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by Ras-GRF2. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2000. 20: 27272733.
  • 39
    Ford, J. M. and Hait, W. N., Pharmacology of drugs that alter multidrug resistance in cancer. Pharmacol. Rev. 1990. 2: 155199.
  • 40
    Gottesman, M. M. and Pastan, I., Biochemistry of multidrug resistance mediated by the multidrug transporter. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 1993. 62: 385427.
  • 41
    Tsuruo, T., Iida, H., Tsukagoshi, S. and Sakurai, Y., Overcoming ofvincristine resistance in P388 leukemia in vivo and in vitro through enhanced cytotoxicity of vincristine and vinblastine by verapamil. Cancer Res. 1981. 41: 19671972.
  • 42
    Schreiber, S. L., Chemistry and biology of the immunophilins and their immunosuppressive ligands. Science 1991. 251: 283287.
  • 43
    Stancato, L. F., Chow, Y.-H., Owens-Grillo, J. K., Yem, A. W., Deibel, M. R., Jove, R. and Pratt, W. B., The native v-Raf/hsp90/p50 heterocomplex contains a novel immunophilin of the FK506 bindingclass. J. Biol. Chem. 1994. 269: 2215722161.
  • 44
    Coss, M. C., Stephens, R. M., Morrison, D. K., Winterstein, D., Smith, L. M. and Simek, S. L., The immunophilin FKBP65 forms an association with the serine/threonine kinase c-Raf-1. Cell Growth Differ. 1998. 9: 4148.
  • 45
    Celada, A., Gray, P. W., Rinderknecht, E. and Schreiber, R. D., Evidence for a gamma-interferon receptor that regulates macrophage tumoricidal activity. J. Exp. Med. 1984. 160: 5574.
  • 46
    Celada, A. and Maki, R. A., Transforming growth factor-β enhances the M-CSF and GM-CSF-stimulated proliferation of macrophages. J. Immunol. 1992. 148: 11021105.
  • 47
    Xaus, J., Cardo, M., Valledor, A. F., Soler, C., Lloberas, J. and Celada, A., Interferon gamma induces the expression of p21Waf-1 and arrests macrophage cell cycle, preventing induction of apoptosis. Immunity 1999. 11: 103113.
  • 48
    Chomczynski, P. and Sacchi, N., Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal. Biochem. 1987. 162: 156159.
  • 49
    Torczynski, P., Bollon, A. P. and Fuke, M., The complete nucleotide sequence of the rat 18S ribosomal RNA gene and comparison with the respective yeast and frog genes. Nucleic Acid Res. 1983. 11: 48794890.