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  • 1
    Waldrop, S. L., Pitcher, C. J., Peterson, D. M., Maino, V. C. and Picker, L. J., Determination of antigen-specific memory/effector CD4+ T cell frequencies by flow cytometry: evidence for a novel, antigen-specific homeostatic mechanism in HIV-associated immunodeficiency. J. Clin. Invest. 1997. 99: 17391750.
  • 2
    Kern, F., Surel, I. P., Brock, C., Freistedt, B., Radtke, H., Scheffold, A., Blasczyk, R., Reinke, P., Schneider-Mergener, J., Radbruch, A., Walden, P. and Volk, H. D., T cell epitope mapping by flow cytometry. Nat. Med. 1998. 4: 975978.
  • 3
    Kern, F., Surel, I. P., Faulhaber, N., Frommel, C., Schneider-Mergener, J., Schonemann, C., Reinke, P. and Volk, H. D., Target structures of the CD8(+)-T cell response to human cytomegalovirus: the 72-kilodalton major immediate-early protein revisited. J. Virol. 1999. 73: 81798184.
  • 4
    Maecker, H. T., Dunn, H. S., Suni, M. A., Khatamzas, E., Pitcher, C. J., Bunde, T., Persaud, N., Trigona, W., Fu, T. M., Sinclair, E., Bredt, B. M., McCune, J. M., Maino, V. C., Kern, F. and Picker, L. J., Use of overlapping peptide mixtures as antigens for cytokine flow cytometry. J. Immunol. Methods 2001. 255: 2740.
  • 5
    Kern, F., Bunde, T., Faulhaber, N., Kiecker, F., Khatamzas, E., Rudawski, I. M., Pruss, A., Gratama, J. W., Volkmer-Engert, R., Ewert, R., Reinke, P., Volk, H. D. and Picker, L. J., Cytomegalovirus (CMV) phosphoprotein 65 makes a large contribution to shaping the T cell repertoire in CMV-exposed individuals. J. Infect. Dis. 2002. 185: 17091716.
  • 6
    Komanduri, K. V., Viswanathan, M. N., Wieder, E. D., Schmidt, D. K., Bredt, B. M., Jacobson, M. A. and McCune, J. M., Restoration of cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses after ganciclovir and highly active antiretroviral therapy in individuals infected with HIV-1. Nat. Med. 1998. 4: 953956.
  • 7
    Hoffmeister, B., Kiecker, F., Tesfa, L., Volk, H. D., Picker, L. J. and Kern, F., Mapping T cell epitopes by flow cytometry. Methods 2003. 29: 270281.
  • 8
    Altman, J. D., Moss, P. A. H., Goulder, P. J. R., Barouch, D. H., McHeyzer-Williams, M. G., Bell, J. I., McMichael, A. J. and Davis, M. M., Phenotypic analysis of antigen-specific T lymphocytes [published erratum appears in Science 1998. 280: 1821]. Science 1996. 274: 94–96.
  • 9
    Tan, L. C., Gudgeon, N., Annels, N. E., Hansasuta, P., O'Callaghan, C. A., Rowland-Jones, S., McMichael, A. J., Rickinson, A. B. and Callan, M. F., A re-evaluation of the frequency of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV in healthy virus carriers. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 18271835.
  • 10
    Mashishi, T. and Gray, C. M., The ELISPOT assay: an easily transferable method for measuring cellular responses and identifying T cell epitopes. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 2002. 40: 903910.
  • 11
    Anthony, D. D. and Lehmann, P. V., T cell epitope mapping using the ELISPOT approach. Methods 2003. 29: 260269.
  • 12
    Sester, M., Sester, U., Gartner, B., Kubuschok, B., Girndt, M., Meyerhans, A. and Kohler, H., Sustained high frequencies of specific CD4 T cells restricted to a single persistent virus. J. Virol. 2002. 76: 37483755.
  • 13
    Kern, F., Khatamzas, E., Surel, I., Frommel, C., Reinke, P., Waldrop, S. L., Picker, L. J. and Volk, H. D., Distribution of human CMV-specific memory T cells among the CD8(pos.) subsets defined by CD57, CD27, and CD45 isoforms. Eur. J. Immunol. 1999. 29: 29082915.
  • 14
    Kern, F., Faulhaber, N., Frömmel, C., Khatamzas, E., Prösch, S., Schönemann, C., Kretzschmar, I., Volkmer-Engert, R., Volk, H.-D. and Reinke, P., Analysis of CD8 T cell reactivity to cytomegalovirus using protein-spanning pools of overlapping pentadecapeptides. Eur. J. Immunol. 2000. 30: 16761682.
  • 15
    Suni, M. A., Picker, L. J. and Maino, V. C., Detection of antigen-specific T cell cytokine expression in whole blood by flow cytometry. J. Immunol. Methods 1998. 212: 8998.
  • 16
    Nomura, L. E., Walker, J. M. and Maecker, H. T., Optimization of whole blood antigen-specific cytokine assays for CD4(+) T cells. Cytometry 2000. 40: 6068.
  • 17
    Waldrop, S. L., Davis, K. A., Maino, V. C. and Picker, L. J., Normal human CD4+ memory T cells display broad heterogeneity in their activation threshold for cytokine synthesis. J. Immunol. 1998. 161: 52845295.
  • 18
    Appay, V. and Rowland-Jones, S. L., The assessment of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells through the combination of MHCclass I tetramer and intracellular staining. J. Immunol. Methods 2002. 268: 919.
  • 19
    Cohen, C. J., Denkberg, G., Schiffenbauer, Y. S., Segal, D., Trubniykov, E., Berke, G. and Reiter, Y., Simultaneous monitoring of binding to and activation of tumor-specific T lymphocytes by peptide-MHC. J. Immunol. Methods 2003. 277: 3952.
  • 20
    Bercovici, N., Givan, A. L., Waugh, M. G., Fisher, J. L., Vernel-Pauillac, F., Ernstoff, M. S., Abastado, J. P. and Wallace, P. K., Multiparameter precursor analysis of T cell responses to antigen. J. Immunol. Methods 2003. 276: 517.