• Hepatitis C virus;
  • IL-10;
  • Immune subversion;
  • Regulatory T cells


The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections become chronic, despite the presence of HCV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. We have previously suggested that IL-10-secretingantigen-specific regulatory T cells may contribute to viral persistence, and demonstrate here that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from chronically HCV-infected patients secrete IL-10, but not IFN-γ, in response to HCV nonstructural protein 4 (NS4). A neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody restored this defective antigen-specific IFN-γ production in vitro. Furthermore, PBMC from normal individuals secreted IL-10 in response to NS4, suggesting that cells of the innate immune system, in addition to T cells, produced IL-10 in the HCV-infected patients. Cell separation experiments revealed that the innate IL-10 was produced by blood monocytes, but not dendritic cells (DC). In addition, NS4 inhibited IL-12 production by PBMC in response to LPS and IFN-γ, and Th1 responses to recall antigens in normal individuals. Furthermore, supernatants from NS4-stimulated monocytes inhibited LPS-induced maturation of DC and suppressed their capacity to stimulate proliferation and IFN-γ production by allospecific T cells. Our data suggest that HCV subverts cellular immunity by inducing IL-10 and inhibiting IL-12 production by monocytes, which in turn inhibits the activation of DC that drive the differentiation of Th1 cells.