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    Heydtmann, M., Shields, P., McCaughan, G. and Adams, D., Cytokines and chemokines in the immune response to hepatitis C infection. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 2001. 14: 279287.
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    Doherty, D. G., Norris, S., Madrigal-Estebas, L., McEntee, G., Traynor, O., Hegarty, J. E. and O'Farrelly, C., The human liver contains multiple populations of NK cells, T cells, and CD3+CD56+ natural T cells with distinct cytotoxic activities and Th1, Th2, and Th0 cytokine secretion patterns. J. Immunol. 1999. 163: 23142321.
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    Valiante, N. M., D'Andrea, A., Crotta, S., Lechner, F., Klenerman, P., Nuti, S., Wack, A. and Abrignani, S., Life, activation and death of intrahepatic lymphocytes in chronic hepatitis C. Immunol. Rev. 2000. 174: 7789.
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    Nuti, S., Rosa, D., Valiante, N. M., Saletti, G., Caratozzolo, M., Dellabona, P., Barnaba, V. and Abrignani, S., Dynamics of intra-hepatic lymphocytes in chronic hepatitis C: enrichment for Vα24+ T cells and rapid elimination of effector cells by apoptosis. Eur. J. Immunol. 1998. 28: 34483455.
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    Campbell, J. J. and Butcher, E. C., Chemokines in tissue-specific and microenvironment-specific lymphocyte homing. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2000. 12: 336341.
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    Shields, P. L., Morland, C. M., Salmon, M., Qin, S., Hubscher, S. G. and Adams, D. H., Chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions provide a mechanism for selective T cell recruitment to specific liver compartments within hepatitis C-infected liver. J. Immunol. 1999. 163: 62366243.
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    Boisvert, J., Kunkel, E. J., Campbell, J. J., Keeffe, E. B., Butcher, E. C. and Greenberg, H. B., Liver-infiltrating lymphocytes in end-stage hepatitis C virus: subsets, activation status, and chemokine receptor phenotypes. J. Hepatol. 2003. 38: 6775.
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    Grant, A. J., Goddard, S., Ahmed-Choudhury, J., Reynolds, G., Jackson, D. G., Briskin, M., Wu, L., Hubscher, S. G. and Adams, D. H., Hepatic expression of secondary lymphoid chemokine (CCL21) promotes the development of portal-associated lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammatory liver disease. Am. J. Pathol. 2002. 160: 14451455.
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    Peled, A., Petit, I., Kollet, O., Magid, M., Ponomaryov, T., Byk, T., Nagler, A., Ben-Hur, H., Many, A., Shultz, L. et al., Dependence of human stem cell engraftment and repopulation of NOD/SCID mice on CXCR4. Science 1999. 283: 845848.
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    Nanki, T., Hayashida, K., El-Gabalawy, H. S., Suson, S., Shi, K., Girschick, H. J., Yavuz, S. and Lipsky, P. E., Stromal cell-derived factor-1-CXC chemokine receptor 4 interactions play a central role in CD4+ T cell accumulation in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 65906598.
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    Buckley, C. D., Amft, N., Bradfield, P. F., Pilling, D., Ross, E., Arenzana-Seisdedos, F., Amara, A., Curnow, S. J., Lord, J. M., Scheel-Toellner, D. and Salmon, M., Persistent induction of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by TGF-β1 on synovial T cells contributes totheir accumulation within the rheumatoid synovium. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 34233429.
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    Pablos, J. L., Santiago, B., Galindo, M., Torres, C., Brehmer, M. T., Blanco, F. J. and Garcia-Lazaro, F. J., Synoviocyte-derived CXCL12 is displayed on endothelium and induces angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis. J. Immunol. 2003. 170: 21472152.
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    Gonzalo, J. A., Lloyd, C. M., Peled, A., Delaney, T., Coyle,A. J. and Gutierrez-Ramos, J. C., Critical involvement of the chemotactic axis CXCR4/stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha in the inflammatory component of allergic airway disease. J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 499508.
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    Dienes, H. P., Drebber, U. and von Both, I., Liver biopsy in hepatitis C. J. Hepatol. 1999. 31 Suppl 1: 4346.
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    Jarmay, K., Karacsony, G., Ozsvar, Z., Nagy, I., Schaff, Z. and Lonovics, J., Histological characteristics of chronic hepatitis C in biopsy material. Orv. Hetil. 1998. 139: 19551960.
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    Fischer, H. P., Willsch, E., Bierhoff, E. and Pfeifer, U., Histopathologic findings in chronic hepatitis C. J. Hepatol. 1996. 24: 3542.
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    Bigger, C. B., Brasky, K. M. and Lanford, R. E., DNA microarray analysis of chimpanzee liver during acute resolving hepatitis C virus infection. J. Virol. 2001. 75: 70597066.
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    Patzwahl, R., Meier, V., Ramadori, G. and Mihm, S., Enhanced expression of interferon-regulated genes in the liver of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: detection by suppression-subtractive hybridization. J. Virol. 2001. 75: 13321338.
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    Nishioji, K., Okanoue, T., Itoh, Y., Narumi, S., Sakamoto, M., Nakamura, H., Morita, A. and Kashima, K., Increase of chemokine interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) in the serum of patients with autoimmune liver diseases and increase of its mRNA expression in hepatocytes. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2001. 123: 271279.
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    Itoh, Y., Morita, A., Nishioji, K., Narumi, S., Toyama, T., Daimon, Y., Nakamura, H., Kirishima, T. and Okanoue, T., Clinicalsignificance of elevated serum interferon-inducible protein-10 levels in hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal serum transaminase levels. J. Viral Hepat. 2001. 8: 341348.
  • 21
    Peled, A., Grabovsky, V., Habler, L., Sandbank, J., Arenzana-Seisdedos, F., Petit, I., Ben-Hur, H., Lapidot, T. and Alon, R., The chemokine SDF-1 stimulates integrin-mediated arrest of CD34(+) cells on vascular endothelium under shear flow. J. Clin. Invest. 1999. 104: 11991211.
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    Cinamon, G., Shinder, V. and Alon, R., Shear forces promote lymphocyte migration across vascular endothelium bearing apical chemokines. Nat. Immunol. 2001. 2: 515522.
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    Matthys, P., Hatse, S., Vermeire, K., Wuyts, A., Bridger, G., Henson, G. W., De Clercq, E., Billiau, A. and Schols, D., AMD3100, a potent and specific antagonist of the stromal cell-derived factor-1 chemokine receptor CXCR4, inhibits autoimmune joint inflammation in IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 46864692.
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    Peled, A., Kollet, O., Ponomaryov, T., Petit, I., Franitza, S., Grabovsky, V., Slav, M. M., Nagler, A., Lider, O., Alon, R. et al., The chemokine SDF-1 activates the integrins LFA-1, VLA-4, and VLA-5 on immature human CD34(+) cells: role in transendothelial/stromal migration and engraftment of NOD/SCID mice. Blood 2000. 95: 32893296.
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    Salazar-Mather, T. P., Orange, J. S. and Biron, C. A., Early murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection induces liver natural killer (NK) cell inflammation and protection through macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α)-dependent pathways. J. Exp. Med. 1998.187: 114.
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    Mehal, W. Z., Azzaroli, F. and Crispe, I. N., Immunology of the healthy liver: old questions and new insights. Gastroenterology 2001. 120: 250260.
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    Rossi, D. and Zlotnik, A., The biology of chemokines and their receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2000. 18: 217242.
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    Goddard, S., Williams, A., Morland, C., Qin, S., Gladue, R., Hubscher, S. G. and Adams, D. H., Differential expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors shapes the inflammatory response in rejecting human liver transplants. Transplantation 2001. 72: 19571967.
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    Askari, A. T., Unzek, S., Popovic, Z. B., Goldman, C. K., Forudi, F., Kiedrowski, M., Rovner, A., Ellis, S. G., Thomas, J. D., DiCorleto, P. E. et al., Effect of stromal-cell-derived factor 1 on stem-cell homing and tissue regeneration in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Lancet 2003. 362: 697703.
  • 30
    Petit, I., Szyper-Kravitz, M., Nagler, A., Lahav, M., Peled,A., Habler, L., Ponomaryov, T., Taichman, R. S., Arenzana-Seisdedos, F., Fujii, N. et al., G-CSF induces stem cell mobilization by decreasing bone marrow SDF-1 and up-regulating CXCR4. Nat. Immunol. 2002. 3: 687694.
  • 31
    Gunn, M. D., Kyuwa, S., Tam, C., Kakiuchi, T., Matsuzawa, A., Williams, L. T. and Nakano, H., Mice lacking expression of secondary lymphoid organ chemokine have defects in lymphocyte homing and dendritic cell localization. J. Exp. Med. 1999. 189: 451460.
  • 32
    Luther, S. A., Bidgol, A., Hargreaves, D. C., Schmidt, A., Xu, Y., Paniyadi, J., Matloubian, M. and Cyster, J. G., Differing activities of homeostatic chemokines CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL12 in lymphocyte and dendritic cell recruitment and lymphoid neogenesis. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 424433.
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    Mitra, P., Shibuta, K., Mathai, J., Shimoda, K., Banner, B. F., Mori, M. and Barnard, G. F., CXCR4 mRNA expression in colon, esophageal and gastric cancers and hepatitis C infected liver. Int. J. Oncol. 1999. 14: 917925.
  • 34
    Shackel, N. A., McGuinness, P. H., Abbott, C. A., Gorrell, M. D. and McCaughan, G. W., Insights into the pathobiology of hepatitis C virus-associated cirrhosis: analysis of intrahepatic differential gene expression. Am. J. Pathol. 2002. 160: 641654.
  • 35
    Bissell, D. M., Roulot, D. and George, J., Transforming growth factor beta and the liver. Hepatology 2001. 34: 859867.
  • 36
    Brill, A., Franitza, S., Lider, O. and Hershkoviz, R., Regulation of T-cell interaction with fibronectin by transforming growth factor-beta is associated with altered Pyk2 phosphorylation. Immunology 2001. 104: 149156.
  • 37
    Franitza, S., Kollet, O., Brill, A., Vaday, G. G., Petit, I., Lapidot, T., Alon, R. and Lider, O., TGF-β1 enhances SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis and homing of naive T cells by up-regulating CXCR4 expression and downstream cytoskeletal effector molecules. Eur. J. Immunol. 2002. 32: 193202.
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    Beider, K., Nagler, A., Wald, O., Franitza, S., Dagan-Berger, M., Wald, H., Giladi, H., Brocke, S., Hanna, J., Mandelboim, O. et al., Involvement of CXCR4 and IL-2 in the homing and retention of human NK and NK T cells to the bone marrow and spleen of NOD/SCID mice. Blood 2003. 102: 19511958.
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    Sallusto, F., Kremmer, E., Palermo, B., Hoy, A., Ponath, P., Qin, S., Forster, R., Lipp, M. and Lanzavecchia, A., Switch in chemokine receptor expression upon TCR stimulation reveals novel homing potential for recently activated T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 1999. 29: 20372045.
  • 40
    Esplugues, E., Sancho, D., Vega-Ramos, J., Martinez, C., Syrbe, U., Hamann, A., Engel, P., Sanchez-Madrid, F. and Lauzurica, P., Enhanced antitumor immunity in mice deficient in CD69. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 197: 10931106.
  • 41
    Gonzalo, J. A., Lloyd, C. M., Wen, D., Albar, J. P., Wells, T. N., Proudfoot, A., Martinez, A. C., Dorf, M., Bjerke, T., Coyle, A. J. and Gutierrez-Ramos, J. C., The coordinated action of CC chemokines in the lung orchestrates allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. J. Exp. Med. 1998. 188: 157167.
  • 42
    Knodell, R. G., Ishak, K. G., Black, W. C., Chen, T. S., Craig, R., Kaplowitz, N., Kiernan, T. W. and Wollman, J., Formulation and application of a numerical scoring system for assessing histological activity in asymptomatic chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1981. 1: 431435.