• 1
    Reiner, S. L. and Locksley, R. M., The regulation of immunity to Leishmania major. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1995. 13: 151177.
  • 2
    Solbach, W. and Laskay, T., The host response to Leishmania infection. Adv. Immunol. 2000. 74: 275317.
  • 3
    Sacks, D. and Noben-Trauth, N., The immunology of susceptibility and resistance to Leishmania major in mice. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2002. 2: 845858.
  • 4
    Scharton-Kersten, T., Afonso, L. C., Wysocka, M., Trinchieri, G. and Scott, P., IL-12 is required for natural killer cell activation and subsequent T helper 1 cell development in experimental leishmaniasis. J. Immunol. 1995. 154: 53205330.
  • 5
    Himmelrich, H., Launois, P., Maillard, I., Biedermann, T., Tacchini-Cottier, F., Locksley, R. M., Rocken, M. and Louis, J. A., In BALB/c mice, IL-4 production during the initial phase of infection with Leishmania major is necessary and sufficient to instruct Th2 cell development resulting in progressive disease. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 48194825.
  • 6
    Banchereau, J. and Steinman, R. M., Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature 1998. 392: 245252.
  • 7
    Kelsall, B. L., Biron, C. A., Sharma, O. and Kaye, P. M., Dendritic cells at the host-pathogen interface. Nat. Immunol. 2002. 3: 699702.
  • 8
    Locksley, R. M., Heinzel, F. P., Fankhauser, J. E., Nelson, C. S. and Sadick, M. D., Cutaneous host defense in leishmaniasis: interaction of isolated dermal macrophages and epidermal Langerhans cells with the insect-stage promastigote. Infect. Immun. 1988. 56: 336342.
  • 9
    Blank, C., Fuchs, H., Rappersberger, K., Röllinghoff, M. and Moll, H., Parasitism of epidermal Langerhans cells in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis with Leishmania major. J. Infect. Dis. 1993. 167: 418425.
  • 10
    von Stebut, E., Belkaid, Y., Nguyen, B. V., Cushing, M., Sacks, D. L. and Udey, M. C., Leishmania major-infected murine Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells from susceptible mice releaseIL-12 after infection and vaccinate against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. Eur. J. Immunol. 2000. 30: 34983506.
  • 11
    Moll, H., Fuchs, H., Blank, C. and Röllinghoff, M., Langerhans cells transport Leishmania major from the infected skin to the draining lymph node for presentation to antigen-specific T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 1993. 23:15951601.
  • 12
    Anjuere, F., Martin, P., Ferrero, I., Fraga, M. L., Martinez del Hoyo, G., Wright, N. and Ardavin, C., Definition of dendritic cell subpopulations present in the spleen, Peyer's patches, lymph nodes, and skin of the mouse. Blood 1999. 93: 590598.
  • 13
    Anjuere, F., Martinez del Hoyo, G., Martin, P. and Ardavin, C., Langerhans cells develop from a lymphoid-committed precursor. Blood 2000. 96: 16331637.
  • 14
    Merad, M., Fong, L., Bogenberger, J. and Engleman, E. G., Differentiation of myeloid dendritic cells into CD8alpha-positive dendritic cells in vivo. Blood 2000. 96: 18651872.
  • 15
    Valladeau, J., Clair-Moninot, V., Dezutter-Dambuyant, C., Pin, J. J., Kissenpfennig, A., Mattei, M. G., Ait-Yahia, S., Bates, E. E., Malissen, B., Koch, F., Fossiez, F., Romani, N., Lebecque, S. and Saeland, S., Identification of mouse Langerin/CD207 in Langerhans cells and some dendritic cells of lymphoid tissues. J. Immunol. 2002. 168: 782792.
  • 16
    Henri, S., Vremec, D., Kamath, A., Waithman, J., Williams, S., Benoist, C., Burnham, K., Saeland, S., Handman, E. and Shortman, K., The dendritic cell populations of mouse lymph nodes. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 741748.
  • 17
    Laskay, T., Diefenbach, A., Röllinghoff, M. and Solbach, W., Early parasite containment is decisive for resistance to Leishmania major infection. Eur. J. Immunol. 1995. 25: 22202227.
  • 18
    Diefenbach, A., Schindler, H., Donhauser, N., Lorenz, E., Laskay, T., MacMicking, J., Röllinghoff, M., Gresser, I. and Bogdan, C., Type 1 interferon (IFN-α/β) and type 2 nitric oxide synthase regulate the innate immune response to a protozoan parasite. Immunity 1998. 8: 7787.
  • 19
    Cooper, J. A., Effects of cytochalasin and phalloidin on actin. J. Cell Biol. 1987. 105: 14731478.
  • 20
    Macatonia, S. E., Knight, S. C., Edwards, A. J., Griffiths, S. and Fryer, P., Localization of antigen on lymph node dendritic cells after exposure to the contact sensitizer fluorescein isothiocyanate. Functional and morphological studies. J. Exp. Med. 1987. 166: 16541667.
  • 21
    Tang, H. L. and Cyster, J. G., Chemokine up-regulation and activated T cell attraction by maturing dendritic cells. Science 1999. 284: 819822.
  • 22
    Anjuere, F., Martinez del Hoyo, G., Martin, P. and Ardavin, C., Langerhans cells acquire a CD8+ dendritic cell phenotype on maturation by CD40 ligation. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2000. 67: 206209.
  • 23
    Martin, P., Martinez del Hoyo, G., Anjuere, F., Ruiz, S. R., Arias, C. F., Marin, A. R. and Ardavin, C., Concept of lymphoid versus myeloid dendritic cell lineages revisited: both CD8alpha– and CD8alpha+ dendritic cells are generated from CD4low lymphoid-committed precursors. Blood 2000. 96: 25112519.
  • 24
    Belz, G. T., Behrens, G. M. N., Smith, C. M., Miller, J. F. A. P., Jones, C., Lejon, K., Fathman, C. G., Mueller, S. N., Shortman, K., Carbone, F. R. and Heath, W. R., The CD8+ dendritic cell is responsible for inducing peripheral self-tolerance to tissue-associated antigens. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 196: 10991104.
  • 25
    Liu, K., Iyoda, T., Saternus, M., Kimura, Y., Inaba, K. and Steinman, R. M., Immune tolerance after delivery of dying cells to dendritic cells in situ. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 196: 10911097.
  • 26
    Itano, A. A., McSorley, S. J., Reinhardt, R. L., Ehst, B. D., Ingulli, E., Rudensky, A. Y. and Jenkins, M. K., Distinct dendritic cell populations sequentially present antigen to CD4 T cells and stimulate different aspects of cell-mediated immunity. Immunity 2003. 19: 4757.
  • 27
    Pooley, J. L., Heath, W. R. and Shortman, K., Intravenous soluble antigen is presented to CD4 T cells by CD8– dendritic cells, but cross-presented to CD8 T cells by CD8+ dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 2001. 166: 53275330.
  • 28
    Randolph, G. J., Beaulieu, S., Lebecque, S., Steinman, R. M. and Muller, W. A., Differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells in a model of transendothelial trafficking. Science 1998. 282: 480483.
  • 29
    Randolph, G. J., Inaba, K., Robbiani, D. F., Steinman, R. M. and Muller, W. A., Differentiation of phagocytic monocytes into lymph node dendritic cells in vivo. Immunity 1999. 11: 753761.
  • 30
    Allan, R. S., Smith, C. M., Belz, G. T., van Lint, A. L., Wakim, L. M., Heath, W. R. and Carbone, F. R., Epidermal viral immunity induced by CD8alpha+ dendritic cells but not by Langerhans cells. Science 2003. 301: 19251928.
  • 31
    von Stebut, E., Belkaid, Y., Jakob, T., Sacks, D. L. and Udey, M. C., Uptake of Leishmania major amastigotes results in activation and interleukin 12 release from murine skin-derived dendritic cells: implications for the initiation of anti-Leishmania immunity. J. Exp. Med. 1998. 188: 15471552.
  • 32
    Martin-Fontecha, A., Sebastiani, S., Hopken, U. E., Uguccioni, M., Lipp, M., Lanzavecchia, A. and Sallusto, F., Regulation of dendritic cell migration to the draining lymph node: impact on T lymphocyte traffic and priming. J. Exp. Med. 2003. 198: 615621.
  • 33
    Solbach, W., Forberg, K., Kammerer, E., Bogdan, C. and Röllinghoff, M., Suppressive effect of cyclosporin A on the development of Leishmania tropica-induced lesions in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice. J. Immunol. 1986. 137: 702711.
  • 34
    Wilhelm, P., Ritter, U., Labbow, S., Donhauser, N., Röllinghoff, M., Bogdan, C. and Körner, H., Rapidly fatal leishmaniasis in resistant C57BL/6 mice lacking TNF. J. Immunol. 2001. 166: 40124019.
  • 35
    Ritter, U., Moll, H., Laskay, T., Bröcker, E., Velazco, O., Becker, I. and Gillitzer, R., Differential expression of chemokines in patients with localized and diffuse cutaneous American leishmaniasis. J. Infect. Dis 1996. 173: 699709.
  • 36
    Cook, M. C., Körner, H., Riminton, D. S., Lemckert, F. A., Hasbold, J., Amesbury, M., Hodgkin, P. D., Cyster, J. G., Sedwick, J. D. and Basten, A., Generation of splenic follicular structure and B cell movement in tumor necrosis factor-deficient mice. J. Exp. Med. 1998. 188: 15031510.
  • 37
    Lyons, A. B. and Parish, C. R., Determination of lymphocyte division of flow cytometry. J. Immunol. 1994. 171: 131137.
  • 38
    Takahara, K., Omatsu, Y., Yashima, Y., Maeda, Y., Tanaka, S., Iyoda, T., Clusen, B., Matsubara, K., Letterio, J., Steinman, R. M., Matsuda, Y. and Inaba, K., Identification and expression of mouse Langerin (CD207) in dendritic cells. Int. Immunol. 2002. 14: 433444.