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    Kopf, M., Coyle, A. J., Schmitz, N., Barner, M., Oxenius, A., Gallimore, A., Gutierrez-Ramos, J. C. and Bachmann, M. F., Inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) controls T helper cell subset polarization after virus and parasite infection. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 192: 5361.
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    DeBenedette, M. A., Wen, T., Bachmann, M. F., Ohashi, P. S., Barber, B. H., Stocking, K. L., Peschon, J. J. and Watts, T. H., Analysis of 4–1BB ligand (4–1BBL)-deficient mice and of mice lacking both 4–1BBL and CD28 reveals a role for 4–1BBL in skin allograft rejection and in the cytotoxic T cell response to influenza virus. J. Immunol. 1999. 163: 48334841.
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    Kopf, M., Ruedl, C., Schmitz, N., Gallimore, A., Lefrang, K., Ecabert, B., Odermatt, B. and Bachmann, M. F., OX40-deficient mice are defective in Th cell proliferation but are competent in generating B cell and CTL responses after virus infection. Immunity 1999. 11: 699708.
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    Lu, Z., Yuan, L., Zhou, X., Sotomayor, E., Levitsky, H. I. and Pardoll, D. M., CD40-independent pathways of T cell help for priming of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 191: 541550.
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    Schuler, T. and Blankenstein, T., Naive CD8(+) but not CD4(+) T cells induce maturation of dendritic cells. J. Mol. Med. 2002. 80: 533541.
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    Borrow, P., Tishon, A., Lee, S., Xu, J., Grewal, I. S., Oldstone, M. B. and Flavell, R. A., CD40L-deficient mice show deficits in antiviral immunity and have an impaired memory CD8+ CTL response. J. Exp. Med. 1996. 183: 21292142.
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    Borrow, P., Tough, D. F., Eto, D., Tishon, A., Grewal, I. S., Sprent, J., Flavell, R. A. and Oldstone, M. B., CD40 ligand-mediated interactions are involved in the generation of memory CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) but are not required for the maintenance of CTL memory following virus infection. J. Virol. 1998. 72: 74407449.
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    Thomsen, A. R., Nansen, A., Christensen, J. P., Andreasen, S. O. and Marker, O., CD40 ligand is pivotal to efficient control of virus replication in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J. Immunol. 1998. 161: 45834590.
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    Grewal, I. S. and Flavell, R. A., CD40 and CD154 in cell-mediated immunity. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1998. 16: 111135.
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    Tanchot, C. and Rocha, B., CD8 and B cell memory: same strategy, same signals. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 431432.
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    Whitmire, J. K., Slifka, M. K., Grewal, I. S., Flavell, R. A. and Ahmed, R., CD40 ligand-deficient mice generate a normal primary cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response but a defective humoral response to a viral infection. J. Virol. 1996. 70: 83758381.
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    Bourgeois, C., Rocha, B. and Tanchot, C., A role for CD40 expression on CD8+ T cells in the generation of CD8+ T cell memory. Science 2002. 297: 20602063.
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    Sun, J. C. and Bevan, M. J., Defective CD8 T cell memory following acute infection without CD4 T cell help. Science 2003. 300: 339342.
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    Rowe, W. P., Studies on the pathogenesis and immunity in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in the mouse. Navy Research Report 1954. 12: 167220.
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    Ciurea, A., Klenerman, P., Hunziker, L., Horvath, E., Odermatt, B., Ochsenbein, A. F., Hengartner, H. and Zinkernagel, R. M., Persistence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus at very low levels in immune mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999. 96: 1196411969.
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    Bachmann, M. F., Kundig, T. M., Hengartner, H. and Zinkernagel, R. M., Protection against immunopathological consequences of a viral infection by activated but not resting cytotoxic T cells: T cell memory without --ba--memory T cells"? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 1997. 94: 640645.
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    Moskophidis, D., Lechner, F., Pircher, H. and Zinkernagel, R. M., Virus persistence in acutely infected immunocompetent mice by exhaustion of antiviral cytotoxic effector T cells. Nature 1993. 362: 758761.
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    Oxenius, A., Zinkernagel, R. M. and Hengartner, H., Comparison of activation versus induction of unresponsiveness of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells upon acute versus persistent viral infection. Immunity 1998. 9: 449457.
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    Klenerman, P. and Zinkernagel, R. M., What can we learn about human immunodeficiency virus infection from a study of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus? Immunol. Rev. 1997. 159: 516.
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    Bachmann, M. F., Kundig, T. M., Freer, G., Li, Y., Kang, C. Y., Bishop, D. H., Hengartner, H. and Zinkernagel, R. M., Induction of protective cytotoxic T--e3--cells with viral proteins. Eur. J. Immunol. 1994. 24: 22282236.
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