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  • 1
    Krieg, A. M., Yi, A. K., Matson, S., Waldschmidt, T. J., Bishop, G. A., Teasdale, R., Koretzky, G. A. and Klinman, D. M., CpG motifs in bacterial DNA trigger direct B-cell activation. Nature 1995. 374: 546549.
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    Krieg, A. M., CpG motifs in bacterial DNA and their immune effects. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2002. 20: 709760.
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    Segal, B. M., Chang, J. T. and Shevach, E. M., CpG oligonucleotides are potent adjuvants for the activation of autoreactive encephalitogenic T cells in vivo. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 56835688.
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    Chu, R. S., Targoni, O. S., Krieg, A. M., Lehmann, P. V. and Harding, C. V., CpG oligodeoxynucleotides act as adjuvants that switch on T helper 1 (Th1) immunity. J. Exp. Med. 1997. 186:16231631.
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    Brazolot Millan, C. L., Weeratna, R., Krieg, A. M., Siegrist, C. A. and Davis, H. L., CpG DNA can induce strong Th1 humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in young mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1998. 95: 1555315558.
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    Krieg, A. M., Love-Homan, L., Yi, A. K. and Harty, J. T., CpG DNA induces sustained IL-12 expression in vivo and resistance to Listeria monocytogenes challenge. J. Immunol. 1998. 161: 24282434.
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    Leadbetter, E. A., Rifkin, I. R., Hohlbaum, A. M., Beaudette, B. C., Shlomchik, M. J. and Marshak-Rothstein, A., Chromatin-IgG complexes activate B cells by dual engagement of IgM and Toll-like receptors. Nature 2002. 416: 603607.
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    Kline, J. N., Waldschmidt, T. J., Businga, T. R., Lemish, J. E., Weinstock, J. V., Thorne, P. S. and Krieg, A. M., Modulation of airway inflammation by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in a murine model of asthma. J. Immunol. 1998. 160: 25552559.
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    Sur, S., Wild, J. S., Choudhury, B. K., Sur, N., Alam, R. and Klinman, D. M., Long term prevention of allergic lung inflammation in a mouse model of asthma by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 62846293.
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    Wagner, H., Toll meets bacterial CpG-DNA. Immunity 2001. 14: 499502.
  • 11
    Liu, N., Ohnishi, N., Ni, L., Akira, S. and Bacon, K. B., CpG directly induces T-bet expression and inhibits IgG1 and IgE switching in B cells. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 687693.
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    Peng, S. L., Li, J., Lin, L. and Gerth, A., The role of T-bet in B cells. Nat. Immunol. 2003. 4: 1041.
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    Hemmi, H., Takeuchi, O., Kawai, T., Kaisho, T., Sato, S., Sanjo, H., Matsumoto, M., Hoshino, K., Wagner, H., Takeda, K. and Akira, S., A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA. Nature 2000. 408: 740745.
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    Bauer, S., Kirschning, C. J., Hacker, H., Redecke, V., Hausmann, S., Akira, S., Wagner, H. and Lipford, G. B., Human TLR9 confers responsiveness to bacterial DNA via species-specific CpG motif recognition. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2001. 98: 92379242.
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    Takeshita, F., Leifer, C. A., Gursel, I., Ishii, K. J., Takeshita, S., Gursel, M. and Klinman, D. M., Cutting edge: Role of Toll-like receptor 9 in CpG DNA-induced activation of human cells. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 35553558.
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    Hacker, H., Vabulas, R. M., Takeuchi, O., Hoshino, K., Akira, S. and Wagner, H., Immune cell activation by bacterial CpG-DNA through myeloid differentiation marker 88 and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)6. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 192: 595600.
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    Heit, A., Maurer, T., Hochrein, H., Bauer, S., Huster, K. M., Busch, D. H. and Wagner, H., Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor 9 expression is not required for CpG DNA-aided cross-presentation of DNA-conjugated antigens but essential for cross-priming of CD8 T cells. J. Immunol. 2003. 170: 28022805.
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    Shirota, H., Sano, K., Hirasawa, N., Terui, T., Ohuchi, K., Hattori, T. and Tamura, G., B cells capturing antigen conjugated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induce Th1 cells by elaborating IL-12. J. Immunol. 2002. 169: 787794.
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    Peng, S. L., Szabo, S. J. and Glimcher, L. H., T-bet regulates IgG class switching and pathogenic autoantibody production. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2002. 99: 55455550.
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    Gerth, A. J., Lin, L. and Peng, S. L., T-bet regulates T-independent IgG2a classswitching. Int. Immunol. 2003. 15: 937944.
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    Zhang, G. and Ghosh, S., Toll-like receptor-mediated NF-κB activation: a phylogenetically conserved paradigm in innate immunity. J. Clin. Invest. 2001. 107: 1319.
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    Snapper, C. M., Zelazowski, P., Rosas, F. R., Kehry, M. R., Tian, M., Baltimore, D. and Sha, W. C., B cells from p50/NF-κB knockout mice have selective defects in proliferation, differentiation, germ-line CH transcription, and Ig class switching. J. Immunol.. 1996. 156: 183191.
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    Laurencikiene, J., Deveikaite, V. and Severinson, E., HS1,2 enhancer regulation of germline ϵ and γ2b promoters in murine B lymphocytes: evidence for specific promoter-enhancer interactions. J. Immunol. 2001. 167: 32573265.
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    Kawai, T., Adachi, O., Ogawa, T., Takeda, K. and Akira, S., Unresponsiveness of MyD88-deficient mice to endotoxin. Immunity 1999. 11: 115122.
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    Balasa, B. and Sarvetnick, N., Is pathogenic humoral autoimmunity a Th1 response? Lessons from (for) myasthenia gravis. Immunol. Today 2000. 21: 1923.
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    Shlomchik, M. J., Craft, J. E. and Mamula, M. J., From T to B and back again: positive feedback in systemic autoimmune disease. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2001. 1: 147153.