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  • 1
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    Tisch, R. and McDevitt, H., Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Cell 1996. 85: 291297.
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    Delovitch, T. L. and Singh, B., The nonobese diabetic mouse as a model of autoimmune diabetes: immune dysregulation gets theNOD. Immunity 1997. 7: 727738.
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    André, I., Gonzalez, A., Wang, B., Katz, J., Benoist, C. and Mathis, D., Checkpoints in the progression of autoimmune disease: lessons from diabetes models. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1996. 93: 22602263.
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    Bach, J. F., Chatenoud, L., Herbelin, A., Gombert, J. M. and Carnaud, C., Autoimmune diabetes: how many steps for one disease? Res. Immunol. 1997. 148: 332338.
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    Gombert, J. M., Herbelin, A., Tracrede-Bohin, E., Dy, M., Carnaud, C. and Bach, J. F., Early quantitative and functional deficiency of NK1+-like thymocytes in the NOD mouse. Eur. J. Immunol. 1996. 26: 29892998.
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    Godfrey, D. I., Kinder, S. J., Silveira, P. and Baxter, A. G., Flow cytometric study of T cell development in NOD mice reveals a deficiency in α/βTCR+CD4–CD8– thymocytes. J. Autoimmun. 1997. 10: 279285.
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    Rapoport, M. J., Jaramillo, A., Zipris, D., Lazarus, A. H., Serreze, D. V., Leiter, E. H., Cyopick, P., Danska, J. S. and Delovitch, T. L., Interleukin-4 reverses T cell proliferative unresponsiveness and prevents the onset of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J. Exp. Med. 1993. 178:8799
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    Dosch, H., Cheung, R. K., Karges, W., Pietropaulo, M. and Becker, D. J., Persistent T cell anergy in human type 1 diabetes. J. Immunol .1999. 163: 69336940.
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    Garchon, H. J., Luan, J. J., Eloy, E., Bedossa, P. and Bach,J. F., Genetic analysis of immune dysfunction in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice: mapping of a susceptibility locus close to the Bcl-2 gene correlates with increased resistance of NOD T cells to apoptosis induction. Eur. J. Immunol. 1994. 24: 380384.
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    Arreaza, G., Salojin, K., Yang, W., Zhang, J., Gill, B., Mi, Q. S., Gao, J. X., Meagher, C., Cameron, M. and Delovitch, T. L., Deficient activation and resistance to activation-induced apoptosis of CD8+ T cells is associated with defective peripheral tolerance in nonobese diabetic mice. Clin. Immunol. 2003. 107: 103115.
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    Wicker, L. S., Miller, B. J., Chai, A., Terada, M. and Mullen, Y., Expression of genetically determined diabetes and insulitis in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse at the level of bone marrow-derived cells. Transfer of diabetes and insulitis to nondiabetic (NOD × B10) F1 mice with bone marrow cells from NOD mice. J. Exp. Med .1988. 167: 18011810.
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    Serreze, D. V. and Leiter, E. H., Development of diabetogenic T cells from NOD/Lt marrow is blocked when an allo-H-2 haplotype is expressed on cells of hemopoietic origin, but not on thymic epithelium. J. Immunol. 1991. 147: 12221229.
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    Posselt, A. M., Barker, C. F., Tomaszewski, J. E., Markmann, J. F., Choti, M. A. and Naji, A., Induction of donor-specific unresponsiveness by intrathymic islet transplantation. Science 1990. 249: 12931295.
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    Dardenne, M., Lepault, F., Bendelac, A. and Bach, J. F., Acceleration of the onset of diabetes in NOD mice by thymectomy at weaning. Eur. J. Immunol. 1989. 19: 889895.
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    Boitard, C., Yasunami, R., Dardenne, M. and Bach, J. F., T cell-mediated inhibition of the transfer of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. J. Exp. Med .1989. 169: 16691680.
  • 17
    Herbelin, A., Gombert, J. M., Lepault, F., Bach, J. F. and Chatenoud, L., Mature mainstream TCRα β+CD4+ thymocytes expressing L-selectin mediate "active tolerance" in the nonobese diabetic mouse. J. Immunol .1998. 161: 26202628.
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    Stephens, L. A. and Mason, D., CD25 is a marker for CD4+ thymocytes that prevent autoimmune diabetes in rats, but peripheral T cells with this function are in both CD25+ and CD25– subpopulations. J. Immunol .2000. 165: 31053110.
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    Hammond, K. J. L., Poulton, L. D., Palmisano, L. J., Silveira, P. A., Godfrey, D. I. and Baxter, A. G., Alpha/beta-T cell receptor (TCR)+CD4–CD8– (NKT) thymocytes prevent insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus innonobese diabetic (NOD)/Lt mice by the influence of interleukin (IL)-4 and/or IL-10. J. Exp. Med .1998. 187: 10471056.
  • 20
    Atlan-Gepner, C., Naspetti, M., Valero, R., Barad, M., Lepault, F., Vialettes, B. and Naquet, P., Disorganization of thymic medulla precedes evolution towards diabetes in female NODmice. Autoimmunity 1999. 31: 249260.
  • 21
    Savino, W., Boitard, C., Bach, J. F. and Dardenne, M., Studies on the thymus in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. I. Changes in the microenvironmental compartments. Lab. Invest. 1991. 64: 405417.
  • 22
    Savino, W., Carnaud, C., Luan, J. J., Bach, J. F. and Dardenne, M., Characterization of the extracellular matrix-containing giant perivascular spaces in the thymus of the nonobese diabetic mouse. Diabetes 1993.42: 134140.
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    Anderson, G., Moore, N. C., Owen, J. J. T. and Jenkinson, E. J., Cellular interactions in thymocyte development. Annu. Rev. Immunol .1996. 14: 14731499.
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    Robey, E. A. and Fowlkes, B. J., Selective events in T cell development. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1994. 12: 675705.
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    Savino, W., Villa-Verde, D. M. S. and Lannes-Vieira, J., Extracellular matrix proteins in intrathymic T cell migration and differentiation? Immunol. Today 1993. 14: 158161.
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    Magner, W. J., Chang, A. C., Owens, J., Hong, M. J., Brooks,A. and Coligan, J. E., Aberrant development of thymocytes in mice lacking laminin-2. Dev. Immunol. 2000. 7: 179193.
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    Sawada, M., Nagamine, J., Takeda, K., Utsumi, K., Kosugi, A., Tatsumi, Y., Hamaoka, T., Miyake, K., Nakajima, K., Watanabe, T., Sakakibara, S. and Fujiwara, H., Expression of VLA-4 on thymocytes. Maturation stage-associated transition and its correlation with their capacity to adhere to thymic stromal cells. J. Immunol .1992. 149: 35173524.
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    Salomon, D. R., Mojcik, C. F., Chang, A. C., Wadsworth, S., Adams, D. H., Coligan, J. E. and Shevach, E. M., Constitutive activation of integrin alpha 4 beta 1 defines a unique stage of human thymocyte development . J. Exp. Med .1994. 179: 15731584.
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    Crisa, L., Cirulli, V., Ellisman, M. H., Ishii, J. K., Elices, M. J. and Salomón, D. R., Cell adhesion and migration are regulated at distinct stages of thymic T cell development: the roles of fibronectin, VLA-4 and VLA-5. J. Exp. Med .1996. 184: 215228.
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    Dalmau, S. R., Freitas, C. S. and Savino, W., High expression of fibronectin receptors and L-selectin as a hallmark of early steps of thymocyte differentiation: lessons from sublethally irradiated mice. Blood 1999. 93: 974990.
  • 31
    Tchilian, E. Z., Owen, J. J. T. and Jenkinson, E. J., Anti-α4 integrin antibody induces apoptosis in murine thymocytes and staphylococcal enterotoxin B-activated lymph node T cells. Immunology 1997. 92: 321327.
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    Takayama, E., Kina, T., Katsura, Y. and Tadakuma, T., Enhancement of activation-induced cell death by fibronectin in murine CD4+CD8+ thymocytes. Immunology 1998. 95: 553558.
  • 33
    Zaitseva, M. B., Mojcik, C. F., Salomon, D. R., Shevach, E. M. and Golding, H., Co-ligation of α4β1 integrin and TCR rescues human thymocytes from steroid-induced apoptosis. Int. Immunol .1998. 10: 15511561.
  • 34
    Villa-Verde, D. M. S., Mello-Coelho, V., Lagrota-Cândido, J. M. and Savino, W., The thymic nurse cell complex: an in vitro model for extracellular matrix-mediated intrathymic T cell migration. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1995. 28: 907912.
  • 35
    Oliveira-dos-Santos, A. J., Penninger, J. M., Rieker-Geley, T., Matsumoto, G., Mak, T. M. and Wick, G., Thymic heterotypic cellular complexes in gene-targeted mice with defined blocks in T cell development andadhesion molecule expression. Eur. J. Immunol. 1998. 28: 28822892.
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    Guyden, J. C. and Pezzano, M., Thymic nurse cells: a microenvironment for thymocyte development and selection. Int. Rev. Cytol. 2003. 223: 137.
  • 37
    Villa-Verde, D. M. S., Chammas, R., Lagrota-Candido, J. M., Brentani, R. R. and Savino, W., Extracellular matrix components of the mouse thymus microenvironment. IV. Thymic nurse cells express extracellular matrix ligands and receptors. Eur. J. Immunol. 1994. 24: 659664.
  • 38
    Mello-Coelho, V., Villa-Verde, D. M. S., Dardenne, M. and Savino, W., Pituitary hormones modulate by extracellular matrix-mediated interactions between thymocyte and thymic epithelial cell mediated ligands and receptors. J. Neuroimmunol. 1997. 76: 3949.
  • 39
    Uniyal, S., Boeters, L., Chakrabarti, S., Singh, B. and Chan, B. M. C., Leukocytes utilize both α4 and α5 integrins for intraislet infiltration in nonobese diabetic mice. J. Autoimmunity 1999. 12: 167176.
  • 40
    Gabor, M. J., Godfrey, D. I. and Scollay, R., Recent thymic emigrants are distinct from most medullary thymocytes. Eur. J. Immunol .1997. 27: 20102015.
  • 41
    Lepault, F. and Gagnerault, M. C., Characterization of peripheral regulatory CD4+ T cells that prevent diabetes onset in nonobese diabetic mice. J. Immunol. 2000. 164: 240247.
  • 42
    Sakaguchi, S., Regulatory T cells: key controllers of immunologic self-tolerance. Cell 2000. 101: 455458.
  • 43
    Colomb, E., Savino, W., Wicker, L., Peterson, L., Dardenne, M. and Carnaud, C., Genetic control of giant perivascular space formation in the thymus of NOD mice. Diabetes 1996. 45: 15351540.
  • 44
    Wu, A. J., Hua, H., Munson, S. H. and McDevitt, H. O., Tumor necrosis factor-α regulation of CD4+CD25+ T cell levels in NOD mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2002. 99: 1228712292.
  • 45
    Salaün, J., Simmenauer, N., Coutinho, A. and Le Douarin, N. M., Grafts of supplementary thymuses injected with allogeneic pancreatic islets protect nonobese diabetic mice against diabetes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2002. 99: 874877.
  • 46
    Throsby, M., Herbelin, A., Pleau, J. M. and Dardenne, M., CD11c+ eosinophils in the murine thymus: developmental regulation and recruitment upon MHC class I restricted thymocyte deletion . J. Immunol. 2000. 165: 19651975.
  • 47
    Amarante-Mendes, J. G., Chammas, R., Abrahamsohn, P., Patel, P. C., Potworowski, E. F. and Macedo, M. S., Cloning of a thymic stromal cell capable of protecting thymocytes from apoptosis. Cell. Immunol. 1995. 166: 173179.